unidentified object of affection of Borges, later renamed J. M., perhaps Judith Machado
mysterious man to whom Shakespeare's sonnets are dedicated
Silva Valdés poem
13th century Viking king
city in the Netherlands
San Cristóbal de La Habana, Havana, capital of Cuba
German Orientalist, 1775-1839, translator of part of the Arabian Nights for the Breslau edition of 1835-1843
Bustos Domecq, 1932
Parodi: obra en prosa cuyo título sugiere que posiblemente habría sido motivada por las observaciones de Badoglio sobre el abuso de galicismos por parte de Bustos.
Borges book of poems and short prose, 1960
unpublished long essay by Jorge Guillermo Borges
Bernabé Pérez Ortiz, 1935
German scholar of China, 1864-1935, author of Chinesische Philosophie, Der Buddhismus and other works
underworld of Greek mythology
Greek god of the underworld
region in Yemen
Fate or Destiny
son of Hildebrand in the Hildebrandslied
German biologist and philosopher, 1834-1919, author of Der Kampf um den Entwicklungsgedanken, Anthropogenie and other works
Haedo is a city located in Partido of Morón, Buenos Aires province, Argentina. It forms part of the urban conurbation of Greater Buenos Aires.
cousin of the narrator in Borges story Funes el memorioso.
Fishburn and Hughes: "Haedo was a family surname of Borges: his mother's cousin was Francisco Haedo. As a child Borges and his family spent summer vacations at the Haedo ranch near Fray Bentos. A few miles north, on the banks of the river Uruguay, there is a small town by the same name." (85)
Borges's cousin, married to the Uruguayan writer Enrique Amorim
Borges's uncle in Uruguay, father of Esther Haedo
uncle of the narrator in Borges story "Funes"
Ibsen play on the theme of the Laxdoela Saga
Khwāja Šamsu d-Dīn Muḥammad Hāfez-e Šhīrāzī, Persian lyric poet, 1325-1389
Tulio Herrera novel, 1965
character in the Nibelungenlied
British writer, 1856-1925
German expressionist poet, perhaps the painter who died in Karlsbad in 1944
Haifeng, city in China east of Hong Kong.
Fishburn and Hughes: "A Chinese town east of Hong Kong." (85)
Japanese genre of short poem
Hyderabad, city in Andhra Pradesh state in India
Fishburn and Hughes: A state in south central India. Nizam is the title of the reigning prince. The Zahir
Moore autobiography, consisting of Ave, 1911, Salve, 1912, and Vale, 1913
town in Idaho
Al-Moqanna, the Veiled Prophet of Khorasan, d. 779
Haakon IV, "the Old," Norwegian king, 1204-1263
count in the Heimskringla
Sturla Thordarson saga about king Hakon of Norway, who had instigated the murder of Sturla's uncle, Snorri Sturluson
character in the Njals Saga
Icelandic poet, co-author with Rognvald of the Hattalykill
Jehudah Halevi, Jewish rabbi, poet and philosopher, born in Spain, c.1075-1141, sometimes Judah ha-Levi or Judah Halevy
legendary king in the Halfssaga
Milward Kennedy, 1930.
Ellery Queen mystery, 1936
Icelandic saga about the legendary king Half
Halicarnassus, Greek city in Asia Minor
British religious figure, 1839-1934, compiler of Lord Halifax's Complete Ghost Book, 1936
character in the Njals Saga
scholar of Old English poetry and author of A Concise Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, 1855-1931
pseudonym of Margaret Radclyffe-Hall, 1880-1943, author of the lesbian novel The Well of Loneliness, here mentioned as author of The Sixth Beatitude
Marcial Tamayo Saenz, short story.
ora bard of Iceland
city in southeastern Germany
Union general in the U. S. Civil War, 1815-1872
Vidor film, 1929
probably Karl Ludwig von Haller, Swiss jurist and historian, 1768-1854
English astronomer, 1656-1742
Icelandic skald who died in Scotland
character in the Njals Saga
Argentine classical scholar who studied with Amado Alonso
Italian-born Argentine scholar, 1900-1986
Dutch painter, 1580-1666
tree nymphs of classical mythology
Hamburg, city in northern Germany
French classical author born in Ireland, 1646-1720, author of Memoires du comte de Gramont, Zeneyde, Les Quatres facardins and other works
Coleridge essay in Notes and Lectures upon Shakespeare
Shakespeare tragedy, 1603
prince of Denmark, character in Shakespeare, called Amleth or Amlodi in earlier accounts
Michael Innes, novel, 1937.
Swedish statesman, secretary general of the United Nations, 1905-61
Austrian orientalist, 1774-1856, author of Geschichte des osmanischen Reiches and other works
US detective novelist, 1894-1961, author of Red Harvest, The Maltese Falcon and other works
pseudonym of Henri Bourrillon, French writer, 1876-1962
editor of Twenty One-Act Plays, 1935
neighborhood in northern London
one of the sons of Pharez in the Bible
dynasty that ruled China from 206 B.C. to 220 A.D.
Chinese philosoopher, c. 280-233
9th century Chinese writer cited in the Anthologie raisonee de la litterature chinoise
Oliver Onions fantastic novel, 1939
German composer, 1685-1759
Lindsay prose work, 1916
US jazz and blues musician and composer, 1873-1958, editor of Blues: An Anthology and author of Father of the Blues
one of the monsters in Ezekiel's dream
town in Staffordshire, now part of Stoke-on-Trent
Maronite who aided Galland in his translation of the Arabian Nights
La ascensión de Hannele, Hauptmann play with a dream sequence, 1893
town in Missouri on the Mississippi River
Hanno, Carthaginian explorer sent to West Africa before 480 B.C., of whose report a Greek version survives
capital of Vietnam
Hugh Walpole novel, 1929
owner of a restaurant, the "3 de febrero," known in the mythology of the tango as "Lo de Hansen," in the Palermo neighborhood in Buenos Aires, from 1874 to 1892
Parodi: “la inolvidable pista de Hansen”: conocido por el apellido de su primer propietario, Juan Hansen, “Lo de Hansen” fue un café con pista de baile −para algunos, una mezcla de prostíbulo suntuario con restaurante− que desde 1877 funcionaba en los jardines de Palermo (cf. “Toros” i §2). Considerado una de las cunas del tango, fue demolido en 1912.
Bohemian-Austrian music critic, 1825-1904
biographer of Cézanne, Coleridge and others
monkey god in the Ramayana
Sioux god of thunder
Harold III , Norwegian king, d. 1066 at Stamford Bridge.
Fishburn and Hughes: "The son of a Norwegian chief who fought against the Danes under King Olaf II of Norway. At the King's death, Harald took refuge in Russia and served under the Prince of Kiev; from there he enlisted in the army of the Byzantine Emperor Michael IV. His military exploits form part of Byzantine and Norse medieval history. King of Norway from 1047, Harald expanded Norse rule over Orkney, Shetland and the Hebrides, and claimed the throne of England at the death of Edward the Confessor in 1066, allying himself with the rebel Tostig against the new English king, Harold II. He was defeated and killed on 25 September 1066 at Stamford Bridge." (85)
Harold I , first king of Norway, c. 850-c. 933
Viking commemorated on runic inscription found in eastern Canada
Norwegian king and saint, 995-1030
U. S. president, 1865-1923
German scholar of Buddhism, 1852-1904, author of Der Buddhismus nach alteren Pali-Werken, 1890, and numerous other works on Indian religions
US film actor, 1892-1957, worked in team with Stanley Laurel
English novelist and poet, 1840-1928
Hugh Walpole, 1926
German theologian, 1851-1930, author of Lehrbuche der Dogmengeschichte, Geschichte der altchristlischen Litteratur and other works.
Fishburn and Hughes: "A German religious historian and patrologist, famous for his formulation of Gnosticism as 'the acute Hellenisation of Christianity'. Harnack was opposed to any form of 'Hellenisation' (the interpretation of early Christianity in the light of Greek tradition), holding that Greek sources were an intrusion into Christian theology. As a result he was critical of traditional Christian dogma. See Wilhelm Bousset." (85)
English king, son of Godwin, ear of Wessex, 1022?-1066, defeated by the Normans at the battle of Hastings.
Fishburn and Hughes: "The last Anglo-Saxon king of England, who was defeated and killed by William the Conqueror at the battle of Hastings. Harold assumed the crown on the death of Edward the Confessor in 1066 in the face of two other claimants, Harald Hardrada of Norway whom he defeated at Stamford Bridge and William of Normandy." (85)
Harold Bluetooth, Danish king, d. c.985
character in Bustos Domecq and Suárez Lynch stories
Parodi: 1) otro de los miembros de la banda internacional de ladrones, supuesto veterano de la guerra de Cuba. Mencionado también en “Toros” y en Modelo V. El nombre del coronel evoca el del propietario de una muy célebre casa editora de Londres, George G. Harrap (1868−1938).
2) “la noche aquella en que Harrap lo guardó en la letrina”: Parodi evoca una escena de “Goliadkin” en que el coronel Harrap impidió que Montenegro visitara en el tren el camarote de la baronne Puffendorf -Duvernois y lo encerró en el baño para caballeros, que don Isidro llama ‘letrina’; cf. “Goliadkin” i §15.
city in Ethiopia
Argentine poet, 1924-1995
US writer, born in Ireland, 1856-1931, author of My Life and Loves, biographies of Shakespeare, Shaw and Wilde, and numerous novels and collections of short stories
British scholar, 1894-1991, author of works on Shakespeare and English poetry
US writer, 1836-1902, author of The Luck of Roaring Camp and Other Sketches and many other works
ghost in Lord Halifax's Ghost Book
character in Jorge Max Rohde book, combination of the Baron de Rothschild and Harun-al-Rashid
fifth Abbasid caliph, c. 764-809, sometimes Arrasid, al-Raschid, Emir de los Creyentes, even Aarón el Ortodoxo; also a character in the Arabian Nights
in Cambridge, Massachusetts
in Icelandic saga, see Havarth
author of the first three editions of the Oxford Companion to English Literature and co-author of the Oxford Companion to French Literature
Carriego poem, published posthumously
German expressionist writer, 1890-1940
ancestors of Borges through Fanny Haslam
pseudonym used by Borges in the Revista Obra, 1935-36
Borges's English grandmother, 1842-1935
author of History of the Land Called Uqbar, 1874, and A General History of Labyrinths.
Fishburn and Hughes: "A fictional name, perhaps a tribute to Fanny Haslam, Borges's paternal English grandmother, who is recalled in 'Story of the Warrior and the Captive'. Borges has, on occasion, published under the name David Haslam. See Borges." (86)
Feuchtwanger novel, 1923, translated as The Ugly Duchess
Hassan ibn Sabbah, founder of the Assassins at the end of the 11th century
Viking warrior in Etruria
town in England, site of battle in 1066 between King Harold and William the Conqueror
British official in India, first governor-general, 1732-1818
Shakespeare's wife, 1557?-1623
Egyptian goddess of love and festivity
Sandburg poem, 1922
collection of skaldic songs
a list of verse forms by Snorri Sturluson, part of the Prose Edda
Hawara, archeological site in Egypt, here mentioned as an ancient labyrinth
La librería encantada, Christopher Morley novel, 1919
Wilkie Collins, 1878.
German playwright, 1862-1946
Hungarian art historian, 1892-1978
"Words of the High One, Odin," part of the Elder Edda
character in Icelandic saga
Icelandic saga about Havarth
town in Massachusetts
British film actress, b. 1916
Parodi: “como Errol Flynn y Olivia de Havilland en Vamos a Méjico que en inglés se llama Sombrero”: Errol Flynn (1909−1959) y Olivia de Havilland (1916−?), entre 1935 y 1941 fueron la pareja cinematográfica más célebre de Hollywood; filmaron juntos en siete ocasiones y al menos tres de esos films están ambientados en el Lejano Oeste, como la supuesta película que menciona Mariana. Los títulos que señala Mariana dan pie a una broma sobre las caprichosas titulaciones de películas extranjeras en su traducción al castellano.
island archipelago in the Pacific, former kingdom, now state in the United States
perhaps Sir John Hawkwood, English condottiere, d. 1394 in Florence
ancestors of Nathanie Hawthorne, including Major William Hathorne, early Puritan settler in Salem
US writer, 1804-1864, author of The Scarlet Letter, The Marble Faun, The Blithedale Romance, Wakefield and other works
Carriego poem, published posthumously
US editor and publisher, 1905-1991, editor of Murder for Pleasure
French phycisian (1841-1933).
four angelic beings in Jewish tradition
English essayist, 1778-1830, author of countless essays on drama, poetry and history, as wel as travel books and letters.
Fishburn and Hughes: "An English critic and essayist. 'Hazlitt's infinite Shakespeare' refers to Hazlitt's Lectures on the English Poets (1818), where he wrote: 'He was just like any other man, but that he was like all other men.... He was nothing in himself; but he was all that others were or that they could become.' Borges paraphrases these words in 'From Someone to Nobody' (TL 341) and develops Hazlitt's idea in 'Everything and Nothing' (CF 319)" (86)
The Autobiography of R, 1937 book written in collaboration with Henry Wysham Lanier, about the 1889 Mayerling Incident, the murder-suicide of Crown Prince Rudolf of Austria and his lover Baroness Mary Vetsera
Dickson Carr, novel, 1946.
Chesterton story in The Wisdom of Father Brown
town in Maine
Norah Barnacle, 1884-1951, wife of James Joyce, here called by her mother's surname
English writer on religion and psychology, 1889-1971, author of Pain, Sex and Time
US writer, 1850-1904, author of various books on Japan
US financier and newspaperman, 1863-1951, model for Citizen Kane in Orson Welles movie
Wilkie Collins, 1883.
Conrad short novel, 1902
Graham Greene, novel, 1948.
a misprint for O. Henry
Wilder novel, 1935
German tragic dramatist, 1813-1863
minor Greek goddess, daughter of Hera and Zeus
Heine, third book of the Romanzero, 1851
Yehuda Abrabanel, Jewish philosopher poet, c. 1465-1520
Paul's Epistle to the Hebrews, in the Bible
in Greek mythology, goddess of ghosts and witchcraft
By Francisco Ayala
in Bible, Acts of the Apostles
See Faits divers de la terre et du ciel
Trojan hero, son of Priam
Ibsen play, 1891
character in the Prose Edda
German philosopher, 1770- 1831, author of Wissenschaft der Logik, Philosophie der Geschichte and numerous writings on logic, history, politics and aesthetics.
Fishburn and Hughes: "A German philosopher, one of the foremost representatives of nineteenth-century idealism. According to Hegel's definition of reality, individual facts are not rational in themselves but only if viewed as aspects of the whole. The whole is called the 'absolute'; it is spiritual, and can only be reached by a process of logic. Deutsches Requiem: this process, known as 'dialectics', is composed of a triadic movement of thesis, the original statement, antithesis, its counterpart, to which the first gives rise, and synthesis, the unification of the two. This synthesis then becomes the new thesis in the next stage of the movement. The Theme of the Traitor and the Hero: Hegel's dialectical system of knowledge also operates in his vision of history. Deeply religious, Hegel viewed the universe as a manifestation of God, the absolute, who arrives at final self-knowledge through the history of finite beings. The human mind, rising from mere consciousness, passes through various stages, culminating in religion and perfect knowledge. Hegel further expands this principle by observing the various dialectic and cyclical stages of human progress in the realisation of God's purpose." (86)
warriors in the Gudrun
Fishburn and Hughes: From the Arabic hijrah, emigration: the term for the starting point of the Muslim era, dated at 622 AD, when Mohammed fled from Mecca to Medina. The second caliph, Umari, introduced the Muslim calendar, which began with the first day of the lunar month, 16 July 622. The seventh century after the Hegira would therefore correspond to our fourteenth century. The Inmortal
German philosopher, 1889-1976, author of Sein und Zeit and other works.
Fishburn and Hughes: "A German philosopher who influenced Existentialism. Borges criticises Heidegger's philosophy as one which 'plays at desperation and anguish' but basically aims at enhancing the importance of the 'ego' and flattering its 'vanity' (‘Note on Bernard Shaw’, Other Inq. 166). Elsewhere he belittles Heidegger's achievement: 'He invented one of the German dialects, but nothing else' (Borges mem. 78). CF 391: The sentiments attributed to Heidegger's 'refutation' can be traced to his Rektoratsrede, where he demonstrates his warm reception of National Socialism, emphasising its ideas of strong, even violent, personal leadership. Heidegger speaks of a people knowing itself and discovering its own essence in the state. He places the statesman among his list of genuine creators, demanding of his leadership 'the strength to be able to walk alone'. The suggestion of Hitlerian demagoguery echoes Heidegger's words (Freiburger Studentenzeitung, Nov.3, 1933): 'The Führer himself and he alone is the German reality of today and for the future, and its law.' In later years Heidegger repudiated this position." (87)
university city in Germany
Swedish poet and novelist, 1859-1940, winner of Nobel Prize for Literature in 1916
Judaísmo y Cristianismo, Max Brod, 1921
Christ the Redeemer
Sudermann play, 1893
in Scandinavian mythology, watchman of the gods, guardian of Valhalla
1928 film based on Leonhard Frank's Karl und Anna
Snorri Sturluson's history of the Norse kings
See Heine, Heinrich
German lyric poet, 1797-1856, author of the Buch der Lieder, Romanzero and other works
German scholar, 1857-1927, author of Deutsche Dichtung, grundriss der deutscher Literaturgeschichte and other works
US science fiction writer, 1907-1988
Louis Untermeyer biography, 1937
12th century Austrian monk and poet, author of Von des todes gehugde and Das Priesterleben
German physicist, 1901-76, important for his work on quantum mechanics and the "Uncertainty Principle"
Hellanicus of Lesbos, Greek writer, fl. c. 450-406, author of lost works on mythology and history
13th century collection of stories of Germanic heroes
selections from Keller's diaries for 1936-37
religious epic poem written in Old Saxon during the reign of Ludwig the Pious, 814-840
Guillermo Torre book of Ultraist poems, 1923
Utopian socialist community founded by Upton Sinclair in Englewood, New Jersey in 1906
Greek believer in Vishnu
Varius Avitus, called Heliogabalus or Elagabalus, Roman emperor, c.205-222.
Fishburn and Hughes: "A dissolute Roman emperor, originally named Bassianus. He served in the Roman army in Syria, where he was popular with the Roman troops for his exceptional beauty, and was appointed high priest of the sun god of Emesa, Elagabal. Elected emperor in 218 at the age of 15, he took the name Marcus Aurelius Antoninus and added 'Heliogabalus' in honour of the god whose secret rites he introduced into the capital. His brief reign, marked by debauchery and cruelty, exemplifies a decadent and turbulent imperial court. Jealous of the popularity of his abstemious cousin, Alexander, he attempted to murder him; he was later killed by the Praetorian Guard in a latrine, together with his mother. The anecdote of the emperor writing 'on shells the lots... destined for his guests' is told by Lampridius in the Historia Augusta (2.22.1)." (87)
ancient city in Egypt, now northeastern part of Cairo.
Fishburn and Hughes: "A city in Egypt important for the worship of the sun god Ra. Among its few remains are the obelisks known as Cleopatra's needles." (87)
religious center of the Ituraean tetrarchy, now called Baalbek in Lebanon
character in Bioy Casares novel
old Norse name for Labrador
character in Ibsen's The Doll House
The Loyalty and Bravery of the Swiss: inscription on the Lion Monument in Lucerne, Switzerland
US novelist, 1899-1961, author of The Sun Also Rises, For Whom the Bell Tolls, The Snows of Kiliminjaro and numerous other works
Runeberg treatise maintaining that Judas was the Messiah, 1909
town in northern Germany
learned doctor mentioned by Gibbon, d. 1787
author of The Life and Times of John Wilkins, 1910
Jutish leader of 5th century invasion of Britain with his brother Horsa
German Lutheran divine and theologian, 1802-1869, author of Christologie des Alten Testaments and editor of the Evangelische Kirchenzeitung.
Fishburn and Hughes: "A German Protestant theologian and leader of the orthodox Lutherans, a bitter opponent of 'rationalism' as a method of Old Testament criticism. In 1830 he mounted a violent attack on the rationalist Gesenius." (88)
English pastor, translator of Beckford's Vathek from French to English in 1785
English poet, 1849-1903, collaborator with Stevenson on Deacon Brodie and author of Invictus
scholar, 1901-1974, author of The Lonely Tower, a study of Yeats
German theologian, author of Terrae incognitae, 1944-1956
German scholar of the Islamic world, 1861-1927, translator of the Koran and the Arabian Nights
Voltaire epic poem on Henri IV of France, 1723
Dominican diplomat, essayist and historian, 1885-1968, author of Breve historia de modernismo and other works
Dominican critic and teacher, 1884-1946, author of Ensayos críticos, Historia de la cultura en la América Hispánica and other works.
Fishburn and Hughes: "A critic and teacher from the Dominican Republic, once considered the foremost Latin American literary historian. He spent most of his later life in Buenos Aires where he was one of the original contributors to Sur, the literary magazine founded by Victoria Ocampo. Henriquez Ureña was a long-standing friend of Borges and collaborated with him in the publication of Antología clásica de la literatura, argentina (1937)." (88)
West biography, 1916
Shakespeare historical play, c. 1597
Shakespeare play, 1613
character in The Picture of Dorian Gray
riva of Deor in the Deor
US film actress, 1907-2003
Greek god of metalworking
collection of tales by Marguerite de Navarre, 1558
Parodi: “el Heptamerón de la Reina Margarita”: se trata de una colección de relatos escritos por Marguerite d’Angoulême (1492-1549), más conocida como Marguerite de Navarre, que fue princesa de Orleans y reina consorte de Navarra. A semejanza del Decamerón de Boccaccio (cf. infra), en el Heptameron (1540-1549), diez viajeros sorprendidos por una tempestad se refugian en una abadía y durante siete días cuentan historias que comentan los oyentes; el resultado son setenta y dos relatos sobre el tema del amor, que describen y satirizan prácticas eróticas sobre todo de la corte renacentista de Navarra.
goddess in Greek mythology
hero in Greek mythology, see Hercules
Heraclides Ponticus the Younger, Greek grammarian and poet, fl. c. 30-60.
Fishburn and Hughes: "A Greek philosopher, born in Heraclea (Pontus), a pupil of Speusippus and Plato. Many books in philosophy, rhetoric, music and mathematics are attributed to him, though nothing survives. Diogenes Laertius states that Heraclides, a trickster by nature, once persuaded the people of Heraclea that, by giving him a golden crown, they would avoid the famine which threatened their city. Before dying he arranged for his corpse to disappear, wishing people to believe that he had ascended bodily to Heaven, but the plan was discovered and his name ridiculed." (88)
Heraclitus of Abdera or Ephesus, Greek philosopher, c. 535-c. 475.
Fishburn and Hughes: "A Presocratic philosopher, of whose work only oracular fragments remain. His philosophy, in opposition to that of Parmenides, was based on the principle of permanent movement in nature due to the continuously changing character of its primordial element, fire; the process takes the form of a perpetual conflict of opposites, struggle and unity. This concept found echoes in the dialectics of Hegel. Isolated epigrammatic remarks by Heraclitus on his contemporaries and predecessors survive, mainly pungent and contemptuous." (88)
French orientalist, 1625-1695, author of a Bibliothèque orientale
English poet, 1593-1623, author of The Temple
poem in Rilke's Buch der Bilder
Portuguese novelist and historian, 1810-1877
Heracles or Herakles, hero in Greek mythology
nickname for Olaf Haraldsson
Agatha Chirstie, novel, 1938.
Frank Fraser Darling book, 1937
German philosopher and critic, 1744-1803, author of Uber die neuere deutsche Literatur, Uber den Ursprung der Sprache, Ideen zur Philosophie der Geschichte der Menschheit and other works
wife of Snorri Sturluson
French Parnassian poet born in Cuba, 1842-1905, author of Les Trophées
city in western England
Chesterton book, 1905
English leader of the resistance to William the Conqueror
Hermann of Reichenau or Herimannus Augiensis, German scholar and chronicler, 1013-1054, author of a Chronicum ad annum 1054
Freeman biography, 1926
Weaver monograph, 1921
Borges and Levinson story
Bratya Karamazovy, Dostoevski novel, 1880
Marx Brothers, US comedic actors
Beccadelli or "Panormita" collection of obscene epigrams
Parodi: “El hermafrodita de Antonio Panormitano”: Antonio Beccadelli (1394−1471), llamado el Panormitano, fue poeta, jurista, diplomático y humanista siciliano. El hermafrodita (1425), la primera colección de poesía erótica latina publicada durante el Renacimiento, reúne ochenta epigramas; la Iglesia prohibió su lectura por licenciosa. Desde 1443, Beccadelli fue protegido de Alfonso V de Aragón (1396-1458) en el reino de Nápoles.
Fishburn and Hughes: "In Greek mythology the herald or messenger of the gods, the protector of herdsmen and the god of science, commerce, invention, the arts and, above all, travellers. In this last role Hermes was also the guide of the souls of the dead to their final abode (psychopompos). In art he is usually represented as a vigorous youth with winged helmet and sandals. A guide in both life and death, Hermes is referred to as two-faced." (89).
brand of boots
Parodi: “traje de montar de Redfern, ponchillo de Patou, botas de Hermés, maquillaje pleinair de Elizabeth Arden”: marcas de ropa y de cosméticos, todas de lujo y alta moda.
Hermes Trismegistus, Greek translation of name of Egyptian god of wisdom, Thoth, to whom the hermetic books were attributed
Fishburn and Hughes: A collection of occult writings, known as the Corpus Hermeticum, dating from the first to the third centuries. Their origin was ascribed to the Egyptian god Thoth, who received from the Greeks the name Hermes Trismegistos ('thrice-great Hermes'). They include a text called Asclepius, thought to have been used by St Augustine in the writing of Civitas Dei. The Theologians
one of Pythagoras's previous incarnations, a soldier in the Trojan War
soldier at Paysandú
Mexican writer, 1904-1958
Argentine politician and gauchesque poet, 1834-86, author of the Martín Fierro as well as Instrucción de estanciero, Vida de Chacho and other prose collected in Prosas de Martín Fierro
Parodi: 1) político, periodista y poeta argentino, autor de El gaucho Martín Fierro (1872) y su continuación, La vuelta de Martín Fierro (1876).
2) “do ya braceara José Hernández”: José Hernández, el autor del poema El gaucho Martín Fierro (cf. “Palabra” §13), fue un decidido partidario de López Jordán. Tras el asesinato de Urquiza, Hernández se unió a la rebelión del caudillo entrerriano; derrotado el movimiento en 1871, Hernández partió al exilio.
public scribe, stock figure
brother and biographer of José Hernández, author of Pehuajó
father of José and Rafael Hernández
gaucho, member of the Unión Cívica Radical who was killed in Paso de los Libres in 1934
Herod Antipas, tetrarch of Galilee mentioned in New Testament, d. c.39 A.D.
king of Judea who ordered the massacre of the innocents, reigned 40-4 B. C.
Greek historian, 484?-425?.
Fishburn and Hughes: "A Greek historian, born in Halicarnassus, known as the 'father of history'. After travelling in Asia Minor, Greece and Egypt, Herodotus settled in the Greek colony of Thurii in Italy. His History, full of charm and subtlety, relates the struggle between Greece and Persia, with numerous digressions. CF 171: Herodotus (2.87) gives details of the Phoenix, having seen it in a painting, and describes the bird's ritual returns to Heliopolis." (89)
name for Juan Manuel de Rosas after the campaign of 1833 against the pampas Indians
bar in Bustos Domecq story
Parodi: célebre calle de la ciudad de Viena.
Uruguayan politician, 1841-1912, also the name of a street in Montevideo
Uruguayan modernist poet, 1875-1910, author of Los parques abandonados, Los éxtasis de la montaña and other works
Parodi: poeta modernista uruguayo, 1875-1910, autor de Los parques abandonados (1902-1908), Los éxtasis de la montaña (1904-1907). Herrera es mencionado también en “Gradus” §23.
Spanish poet, 1534-1597
character in Bustos Domecq story, author of Hagase hizo, Madrugar temprano and other works
Parodi: escritor supuestamente nacido en Buenos Aires un 24 de agosto (el mismo día en que, en 1899, nacía Borges). Bustos le atribuye tres obras: una Apología; el poemario Madrugar temprano y la novela Hágase hizo.
Argentine literary scholar, author of El poeta de hombre: Almafuerte y su obra, 1918
Spanish poet who lived in Argentina, associated with the Centro Republicano Español
English poet, 1591-1674
family in cycle of Hugh Walpole novels
author of Zen in the Art of Archery, 1953
author of Zen in the Art of Flower Arrangement, 1958
German scholar, author of Nordische Mythologie and Danische Geschichte des Saxo Grammaticus
Fishburn and Hughes: A Teutonic fertility goddess, formerly known as Nerthus, said by Tacitus to have been worshipped by early German tribes (Germania 40). Hertha corresponds to the Nordic Jord, earth goddesss and mother of Thor. In Germanic sagas Hertha (or Erda) is the oldest and wisest of the gods to whom Wotan appeals for knowledge. Story of the Warrior and the Captive Maiden
German physicist who was the first to demonstrate the existence of electromagnetic radiation, 1857-1894
strait in the Uruguay River, also nearby tableland south of Salto in Uruguay where Artigas set up his headquarters
Austro-Hungarian journalist, 1860-1904, father of political Zionism
Greek poet, 8th century B.C., author of Works and Days and the Theogony
Fishburn and Hughes: "A Greek epic poet, a near-contemporary of Homer and author of the Theogony and Works and Days. The Theogony details the history of the gods from their emergence from chaos to the moment when Pandora, the first woman, is entrusted by Zeus with ajar containing all the evils 90 which she will let loose on humanity. The Theme of the Traitor and the Hero: in the Works and Days Hesiod combines the moral teachings of the Theogony with rural precepts: continuing the story of Pandora, he traces the decline of mankind from the golden age through the silver and bronze ages down to the present iron age. The later part describes the various tasks which face the farmer and the appropriate times of year in which to perform them, harmonising the rhythm of nature with that of human life." (89)
Swiss poet and novelist, 1877-1962
Heston Aerodrome was a 1930s airfield to the west of London near Cranford
king of the Hegelings in the Gudrun
St. Ambrose work on Cain and Abel
German poet, 1887-1912
German writer, 1891-1985, associated with expressionism in his youth
Persian collection, the "Thousand Stories," probably derived from Sanskrit sources, and itself a source of the Arabian Nights
Longfellow poem, 1855.
Roman name for Ireland.
Fishburn and Hughes: "The Latin name for Ireland." (90)
Peruvian avant-garde poet, 1897-1967
Uruguayan poet, creator of gauchesque poetry, 1788-1822
author of a Vocabulario de germanía, 1609
strange creature of North America
Hydra, water serpent in Greek myth
character in Hermann Broch's Die Unbekannte Grösse
Greek Stoic philosopher, fl. c. 120 A.D., author of Elements of Ethics
Fred Zinneman film, 1952, with Gary Cooper and Grace Kelly
translator of the Grettir Saga and of a biography of Wagner
Parodi: “el cobrador de la Higiénica”: empresa que se menciona entre otras “compañías de cloacas y limpieza de letrinas” en Borges 768.
mountain, geographical landmark of the imaginary Estado Occidental in Conrad's Nostromo.
Fishburn and Hughes: "A peak whose 'white head rises majestically' in the Cordillera of fictional Costaguana described in Conrad's novel Nostromo. See Avellanos, Eastado Occidental, Golfo Plácido, José Korzeniovski." (90)
in the Trinity, Christ the Son
Lugones, part of El Payador
Bustos Domecq story, 1952
phrase used by G. A. Borgese to refer to Nietzsche
Peyrou, novel, 1969.
monastery near where Caedmon lived
St. Hilda, abbess of Whitby, 614-680
princess of India in the Gudrun
hero of the German poem Hildebrandslied
alliterative Old High German poem, written c. 800, telling of the battle between Hildebrand and his son Hadubrand
Danish princess in the Finnsburh fragment
French princess in the Waltharius
daughter of Hogni, character in the Prose Edda
Romanized version of the name of Adolf Hitler
German Protestant divine and scholar, 1823-1907, author of numerous works on the early Christians
California journalist, poet, aviator and author, 1905-1969, translator of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales into modern English in 1935
English novelist, 1900-1954, author of Lost Horizon, Goodbye, Mr Chips and We Are Not Alone
Lugones poem in Lunario sentimental
Lugones prose piece in Las montañas de oro
Borges's first published poem, 1920
Oíd mortales, Argentine national anthem, lyrics by Vicente López y Planes and music by Blas Parera
Uruguayan national anthem, written by Francisco Acuña de Figueroa
Anglada book of poems, 1934
Parodi: supuesta obra de Anglada que correspondería a su etapa nietzscheana. Según Formento, para la realización de esta obra, Anglada se habría basado en un artículo de Azorín (cf. “H.B.D.” §3). De los varios miles de artículos escritos por Azorín para diversos periódicos, hacia la fecha de la publicación de Seis problemas, en 1941, en El pueblo gallego de Vigo apareció “Nietzsche en España”, un título que tuvo amplia repercusión, provocó reacciones encontradas y fue reeditado en otros diarios. Azorín afirma allí el valor que el pensamiento nietzscheano seguía teniendo entonces para España: “No creemos que un partido que aspire a levantar a España pueda tener otra filosofía que la de Nietzsche”.
unfinished early Borges work, also called Ritmos rojos
German military officer and president, 1847-1934
journal published in Allahabad, founded in 1903
Fishburn and Hughes: There is no record of a Hindustan Review in Allahabad, but the Hindustani was published there, in Urdu, from 1931 to 1933. The Approach to Al-Mu’tasim
Detrás del frente, poem by Kurt Heynicke published in Der Sturm in 1919
British philosopher, 1853-1907, author of The Fourth Dimension, A New Era of Thought and other works.
Fishburn and Hughes: "English born mathematician and writer of science fiction. He was interested in higher dimension, and published (among other) The Fourth Dimension and A New Era of Thought. Borges discusses these works in TR II 95-99, ‘La cuarta dimensión’, originally published under his pseudonym Daniel Haslam." (90)
Hippocrates, the Asclepiad of Cos, Greek physician, father of medicine, 469-399
Palermo racetrack in Buenos Aires
cross of griffins with horses
ranch owner mentioned in Evaristo Carriego
city of Hippo in north Africa, where St. Augustine came from
German-Jewish baron, financier and philanthropist, 1831-96
Parodi: "las colonias israelitas del barón Hirsch”: el Barón Moritz von Hirsch auf Gereuth, conocido como Maurice Hirsch (1831-1896) fue un empresario, financista y filántropo judío-alemán que organizó y en parte financió la emigración de judíos de Rusia y otros territorios de Europa oriental hacia varios países, entre ellos, a la Argentina. Los primeros inmigrantes judíos llegaron en 1891 y se instalaron en tierras adquiridas por Hirsch. La presencia de los colonos judíos favoreció el poblamiento y el desarrollo de varias regiones del país, entre otras, de la provincia de Entre Ríos. Fue en esa provincia, en la Colonia Rajil, fundada por Hirsch, donde creció Alberto Gerchunoff, que había nacido en Ucrania en 1883 y que llegó con su familia a la Argentina en 1889. Gerchunoff narró sus experiencias de vida, la cultura y el trabajo en las colonias en una novela que tituló Los gauchos judíos, publicada en 1910, para el Centenario de la Revolución de Mayo.
woman mentioned in Chuang Tzu parable
Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula
Savinien Cyrano de Bergerac, 1657
Voltaire, 1731, about Swedish king
Geneviève Bianquis, 1936 and subsequent editions
Historia de la Literatura Francesa desde 1789 hasta nuestros días, Thibaudet, Paulhan and Bopp, 1936
Emile Brehier, several volumes, 1921-1948
Maurice de Wulf, 1900
Abbé Prévost miscellany in many volumes, 1671, with a sequel, Nouvelle histoire générale des Voyages
Paul Valéry, 1950.
Bloy stories, 1894
Collection of short stories by Villiers de L'Isle-Adam, 1888.
Belleforest compilation of tragic stories from Bandello and other sources, 1559 and later editions
personification of history
Orosius universal history, c.417
Parodi: obra que finge estar escribiendo Anglada.
Carlos Roxlo work in 7 vols.
Materiales para la historia de la civilización portuguesa, Teófilo Braga, 1909-1918
Fidelino Figuereido, 1914
One of the stories in the One Thousand and One Nights.
One of the stories in the One Thousand and One Nights.
Manuel Gálvez novel, 1922
Excerpt from De divinatione by Cicero.
one of Torres Villaroel's Sueños morales
Macaulay, see History of England
story in the One Hundred and One Nights
Conde work in 3 vols., 1820-1821
Borges book of essays, 1936
history of world literature published in Spain
Ricardo Rojas work in 8 vols., 1917-22
Giles, see History of Chinese Literature
Arturo C. Schianca article in Crítica, 1933, also the title of a 1910 book by Juan Alvarez
Historical study written by Héctor G. Ramos Mejía. 2 Volumes.
Borges collection of poems, 1977
Chinese work translated into German by Franz Kuhn
Menéndez y Pelayo, 1911
History book written by Vicente Fidel López. 10 Volumes.
Fishburn and Hughes: The plural of 'Hasid': Hebrew for pious, a term used for the followers of a popular religious movement which arose among Polish Jews in the eighteenth century as a reaction to rabbinical and ritual formalism. Under the charismatic leadership of their founder, Baal Shem Tov, the Hasidim, while continuing to adhere to strict observance of the Law, emphasised the joyousness of religion and the ecstasy of prayer, claiming that man's salvation lies in faith rather than religious knowledge. Their pantheistic concept of God was expressed in the belief that material objects are in reality the image of the deity. One of the distinguishing features of Hasidism was the unquestioned authority bestowed upon the Tzaddik, or spiritual leader, regarded as a mediator between man and God and endowed with supernatural powers. This personality cult, which led to much abuse and superstition, contributed to the animosity felt by orthodox Jews towards Hasidism and the persecution and even excommunication of their leaders by some rabbis, who considered them a godless sect. The idea that this animosity could lead to murder has no historical basis; yet it is not too fanciful for Scharlach to have built his masterplan on the premise that his enemy, the detective Lönnrot, might think it possible. Death and the Compass
Gregorovius, perhaps a reference to his Geschichte der Stadt Rom im Mittelalter, 13 vols., 1859-1872
Menéndez y Pelayo, 8 vols., 1882-1891
Olaus Magnus work, 1555
Excerpt from Geschichte des Abbasidenchalifats in Aegypten by Gustav Weil.
Jourdanes, see De rebus Geticis
Menéndez y Pelayo, 1880-82
Baladhuri's Futuh ul-Buldan, a history of the early expansion of Islam under the Caliphate
Francisco Manuel de Mello history, 1645, published under the pseudonym of Clemente Libertino
Excerpt from Historia del descubrimiento y conquista del Río de la Plata (1612), written by Ruy Díaz de Guzmán.
Lugones poem in El libro fiel
Gauchesque literary work edited and transcribed by Ventura R. Lynch
Alexandre Herculano, 1846-1853
Short story by Borges
Luís de Sousa life of Saint Dominic
Lugones essay, 1911
Eduardo Mallea essay, 1937
In the Antología de la literatura fantástica, story attributed to Niu Chiao.
Gálvez novel, 1922
Only book written by Ruy Díaz de Guzmán in 1612.
Borges story, 1949
José Guevara, published posthumously in the 1830s
History of Shorthorn Cattle in Argentina, Stanwick, 1910.
Book written by Héctor and Luis Bates in 1936.
Bede's history of the English people from the Roman invasion to 731
Fishburn and Hughes: A rambling scientific treatise by Pliny the Elder (AD 23-79) which deals with geography, anthropology, physiology, botany, agriculture, medicine and the arts. Compiled from vast reading, and citing about 500 authors, of whom about 150 were Roman, it is a major source of our knowledge of ancient life. Funes, his Memory, CF 133: the 'odd volume' in the story of Funes probably refers to book 2 where in chapters 3-7 Pliny writes about memory, calling it 'the boon most necessary for life'..
Parodi: obra de Gervasio Montenegro.
Heinrich Ritter and Ludwig Preller, 1838
Collection of short stories by Adolfo Bioy Casares, 1956.
Geoffrey of Monmouth history of Britain, c.1150
Cantu, see Storia universale
Lucian satirical work, Ἀληθῆ διηγήματα, the so-called True History
Name given in the Antología de la literatura fantástica to a fragment of Star Maker (1937) by Olaf Stapledon.
Emerson essay, 1841
Legouis and Cazamian, 1924
Saintsbury, see Short History of English Literature
Richard Garnett, 1898
Kato work in two volumes, one on the first thousand years, 1979, and the second on the modern period, 1991
H. G. Wells comic novel, 1910
History of New York, From the Beginning of the World to the End of the Dutch Dynasty, by Dietrich Knickerbocker
Irving burlesque history, 1809
Percy Sykes, 1915
Philip Gosse, 1932
Conan Doyle, 1926.
Liddell Hart, 1934
Anglo-American film director, 1899-1980, director of The Thirty-Nine Steps, Spellbound and dozens of other films
Nazi dictator, born in Austria, 1889-1945, author of Mein Kampf.
Fishburn and Hughes: "The leader of the National Socialist Party in Germany, who was elected Chancellor in 1933. In defiance of treaty obligations he rearmed and led Germany into a disastrous war which changed the face of Europe. Preaching the supremacy of the Aryan race, his policy was a 'final solution': the complete extermination of the Jews. Six million died in German concentration camps. In 'A Comment 92 on August 23, 1944', Borges speculates on the hypothesis that Hitler actually wished to be destroyed and collaborated in his own annihilation (TL 210). " (91)
group of warriors in the Prose Edda
Danish king in the Volsunga Saga
character in Borges story, author of the verse drama Los enemigos, perhaps kin to the Czech novelist and dramatist Vaclav Hladik, whose work Evzen Voldan the Encyclopaedia Britannica judges "a very striking representation of the life of modern Prague".
Fishburn and Hughes: "A fictional character, the protagonist of 'The Secret Miracle', whose writings are referred to in 'Three Versions of Judas'. See Vindicación de la eternidad." (92)
character in the Prose Edda, also called Aegir
English statesman, 1880-1959
English philosopher, 1588-1679, author of Leviathan
god of the bushmen
Fishburn and Hughes: The German word for a university or its equivalent. The Garden of Forking Paths
Kafka story about preparations for a country wedding, written in 1907-08
Swiss painter, 1853-1918
US theatrical press agent, ?-1987, author of The Murder of The Man Who Was Shakespeare, 1955
German romantic novelist and composer, 1776-1822
Esperanza de la juventud, poem by Kurt Heynicke published in Der Sturm in 1919, Borges translation called simply Esperanza
confused reference to Calvin Hoffmann
Austrian dramatist and poet, 1874-1929, author of Brief des Lord Chandos and numerous other works, and editor of Die osterreichische Bibliothek
"Head-Ransom," Egil's praise of his enemy Eirik Bloodaxe, included in the Egils Saga
Hilaire Belloc's wife, 1868-1914
Section of Sarmiento autobiography
Parodi: “un diario del Hogar Policial”: referencia a la revista Hogar policial, una de las varias publicaciones periódicas de los diversos distritos de policía locales. El Hogar policial era una entidad de beneficencia dentro del cuerpo de policía, mantenida mediante colectas y donaciones de los ciudadanos.
Buenos Aires reformatory
family magazine for which Borges wrote a book column from 1936 to 1939, and contributed to after that; his articles are collected in Textos Cautivos and Borges en El Hogar
English painter and engraver, 1697-1764
literary critic, author of Dangerous Thoughts, 1939
Author of Yerba vieja (1945)
town in Austria on the Swiss border
Parodi: supuesto periódico de alguna de las al menos dos poblaciones de la comunidad autónoma de Aragón que llevan el nombre de Alberuela. La de mayor importancia es Alberuela de Tubo, un municipio de la provincia de Huesca; la otra se denomina Alberuela de la Liena.
Alexander translation of Whitman, 1956
Borges translation of Whitman, 1969
periodical edited by Jacques Reboul, in which Menard published an attack on Valéry
Japanese artist, 1760-1849
Ronald Peacock book, 1938
German lyric poet, 1770-1843, author of Hyperion and other poems
English chronicler, d. c. 1580, author of The Historie of England and editor of the Chronicle
British physician, writer and trans- lator, 1552-1637.
Fishburn and Hughes: "An English translator of the classics known as the 'Translator-General'. His rendering of Pliny's Historia Naturalis, the first in English, is noted for its exuberance and poetic resonance and is believed to have been used by Shakespeare." (92)
English writer who published his third novel in 1936 at the age of eleven
Ramalho Ortigão travel book, 1883
US scholar of Old Icelandic literature, 1880-1972
Dickson Carr, novel, 1935.
Eliot poem, 1925
part of Los Angeles where film industry is centered
Liam O'Flaherty, 1935
Joseph Kessel, 1936
Knud Valdemar Gylding Holmboe, Danish explorer who converted to Islam, 1902-1931, author of Desert Encounter
US author and physician, 1809-94, author of The Autocrat at the Breakfast-Table, The Chambered Nautilus and other works
character in detective stories by Arthur Conan Doyle
old Norse name for Novgorod
Herrera y Reissig poem in Los parques abandonados, 1909
Babylonian general killed by Judith in the Book of Judith
region of northern Germany
H. G. Wells novel, 1939
here, the infinite Libro de Arena
German naturalist poet and playwright, 1863-1929
Pound poem, 1919
Bustos Domecq film
Borges story, published as "Hombre de las orillas" in 1933
Film by René Mugica, 1962, based on the Borges's story.
tale from Enrique González Tuñón´s El alma de las cosas inanimadas
tale from Enrique González Tuñón's El alma de las cosas inanimadas
Borges story, 1952
Alfredo Mario Ferreiro book, 1927
collaborative project, never finished, by Macedonio Fernandez, Borges and others
Mujica Lainez story
blue men, Viking name for the Saracens
mermen of China
early Borges story published in El idioma de los argentinos, later revised as "Hombre de la esquina rosada"
Silva Valdés poem
Pérez Zelaschi, short stories, 1941.
scorpion-men in Gilgamesh
Elmer Rice play, 1918
popular education project directed by Henry Smith Williams
Browning poem in Dramatic Lyrics, 1842
Edna Ferber story
catalogue of a Xul Solar exhibit in 1963 with a Borges preface, subsequently reprinted in several other catalolgues
Greek poet to whom the Iliad and Odyssey are traditionally ascribed
Fishburn and Hughes: Homer (Homero) The first and greatest Greek poet, of Ionian origin, who seems to have lived between the ninth and eighth centuries BC: the author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, both of which were transmitted orally (how far our present texts were remodelled by others remains a matter of dispute). According to legend Homer was blind. Nothing is known about him, but the homogeneity of the language and inspiration of the two poems, together with the consistency of their characters, points to a single originator. Borges studied at length the many translations of Homer's poems and discussed their different merits, displaying a partiality for the versions of Pope. He was particularly interested in the range of interpretations that emerge in the translations, and the impossibility of distinguishing, within the text, between what is intrinsically Homer's and what is part of the heritage of language; he concluded that the original meaning of a text could never be recaptured (Homeric Versions, Tl 69). Borges also felt a certain affinity with Homer, no doubt heightened by his blindness; he suggested that Homer, on losing his sight, realised that poetry was his destiny: compelled to look for experience within himself, he gained in inspiration (’The Maker). The Immortal, CF 186: 'those from Zelea, wealthy Trojans...': these 'words of Greek' which the narrator of 'The Immortal' repeats in his delirium, are a quotation from the passage in the Catalogue of ships in the Iliad listing the Trojan allies (2.824-7). The men from Zelea were led by Pandarus to whom Apollo had taught his skill with the bow. Cf 188: an ‘incomprehensible reproof that verged upon remorse’: these words too 'belong to Homer' in so far as they refer to the insinuation of Helen's guilt when, after the abortive duel between Paris and Menelaus, she reprimands Paris for not having fallen on the battlefield Wad 3.385ff.). CF 191: The poem about a war of 'frogs and mice' refers to the mock epic Batrachomyomachia intended as a satire on the Iliad and traditionally attributed to Homer. See Giambattista Vico, Smyrna.
Jules Romains, 1937
Hombre de carne y del hombre reflejo, Max Jacob, 1924
Jacques Spitz science fiction novel, 1938
Lenormand play, 1924
Duvernois novel, 1936
Ramon Fernandez essay, 1936
Hombres de buena voluntad, Jules Romains cycle of 28 novels, 1932-1946
Murena’s book of essays, 1961.
Central American country
street in Buenos Aires
Chinese cosmology revealed to the emperor Yu
city in southern China, former British possession
Henri Massis nationalist tract, 1937
Parodi: “centro espiritista Honor y Patria”: si bien es improbable que haya existido un centro espiritista de ese nombre, sí en cambio había un “Club Sirio Libanés Honor y Patria”, fundado en 1932 por Moisés José Azize, también director del Diario Siriolibanés, de edición bilingüe. En los lujosos salones del club se realizaron centenares de actos en los que fueron recibidas y agasajadas personalidades políticas, eclesiásticas, diplomáticas, científicas, literarias y artísticas. Para espiritismo, cf. “Doce” i §5.
Chesterton´s short story published in The Innocence of Father Brown, 1911.
character in Priestley novel based on Gary Coooper
character in James's Abasement of the Northmores
character in James's Abasement of the Northmores
Tichborne family lawyer
English poet, 1844-89
Parodi: “la laureada frente de Hopkins”: tal vez se trate de una alusión al sacerdote jesuita, pintor, músico y poeta inglés Gerard Manley Hopkins (1844-1889), cuya poesía, que tendió a la fusión de lo narrativo, lo descriptivo y lo dramático, es admirada por Borges (cf. Introducción a la literatura inglesa, OCC II: 368). Fue el Poeta Laureado Robert Bridges quien compiló, anotó y editó póstumamente la obra de Hopkins (Poems of Gerard Manley Hopkins, 1918).
US film actress, 1902-1972
character in Sadleir's Fanny by Gaslight
Menén Desleal story
Quevedo satirical work, 1645
Fishburn and Hughes: A satirical and philosophical work by Quevedo, whose attack on the government of Philip IV led to his banishment. The work is a 'moral fantasy' in which people from different nations and professions face a tribunal of Gods. The passage likened to Don Quixote's well-known debate 'against letters and in favour of arms' is the passage describing the Greeks as 'rich in books and poor in triumphs'. Quevedo regrets the lack of bullets, complaining that all the lead has been used to make letter-moulds for printing more books. ‘Yet,' he argues, 'it was our battles that gave us our empire and our victories.' The most pungent line, and the one which most concisely expresses the spirit of the debate, is 'Nunca se juntó el cuchillo a la pluma que éste no la cortase' ('Never did the sword join the pen without the one cutting the other'), which denies the compatibility of the world of letters with the world of arms (cf. ed. Zaragoza, 1651,125-8). Pierre Menard, Author of the Quixote
Quintus Horatius Flaccus, Latin poet, 65-8 BC, author of satires, odes and epodes, epistles and an Ars Poetica
Lugones, section of El libro de los paisajes
Lugones book of poems, 1922
mountain in Bible
Huidobro collection of poems in French, 1917
Collection of nouvelles by Guy de Maupassant (1887).
semi-mythical gaucho, based on Guillermo Hoyo, subject of a novel by Eduardo Gutierrez
street name in Bustos Domecq story
Parodi: “la Avenida Hormiga Negra”: el nombre de la avenida alude a un personaje histórico, el gaucho y cuchillero Guillermo Hoyo, un célebre héroe marginal, delincuente y perseguido por la justicia, cuya vida fue narrada por Eduardo Gutiérrez (1851-1889) en el popular folletín Hormiga Negra, publicado en 1881.
Eduardo Gutiérrez novel, 1881
Ivory trader in Africa, 1861-1931, who wrote a book about the trade
According to the brief biographical note in the Antología de la literatura fantástica, English mathematician born in Brighton in 1901.
German Orientalist and philologist, author of Grundriss der iranischen Philologie, 1895, and other works
place mentioned in the Grettirs Saga
Jutish warrior, brother of Hengist; together they led conquest of England by Jutes in 5th century
Cunninghame Graham, 1930
German writer, 1769-1832, author of the Zauber-Bibliothek
hospital in Palermo neighborhood of Buenos Aires
Parodi: Chateau de l’Hospitalet, un vino reserva tinto elaborado en esa región del sur de Francia.
poem by Ricardo Molinari
Parodi: “las cantinas La Hostia al Paso”: comenta Miguel de Torre: “El agnosticismo de Honorio Bustos Domecq y de B. Suárez Lynch, agregado a la saturación que en 1934 les produjo el XXXII Congreso Eucarístico Internacional, con sede en Buenos Aires, los llevó a escribir sobre el Nuncio y el Tigre de la Curia; el poderoso estilo litúrgico de Monseñor De Gubernatis, el tango-milonga El Papa es fija [sic]; las cantinas La Hostia al Paso; el padre Abramowicz, confesor de Fulanita y otras risueñas irreverencias” (231). Sobre el Congreso Eucarístico, cf. “H.B.D.” §3; el Nuncio, cf. “Amistad” §6; el “Lungo Cachaza, el Tigre de la Curia”, cf. “Testigo” §1; De Gubernatis, cf. supra “A manera de Prólogo” §6; el tango-milonga El Papa es una fija, cf. supra §1; el padre Abramowicz confesor de la Princesa Fiodorovna, propietaria de un prostíbulo, cf. “Goliadkin” i §20.
architect, character in Bustos Domecq story
Parodi: “Hotchkis de Estephano”: supuesto arquitecto que adhería a la construcción de ‘inhabitables’.
Fishburn and Hughes: According to Borges's Commentaries (Aleph 173 (268)), the Hotel du Nord stands for the Plaza Hotel in Buenos Aires, at the time one of the city's most elegant hotels. Death and the Compass
Parodi: el “Gran Hotel España”, obra del arquitecto español José Arnavat, fue el primer establecimiento construido sobre la Avenida de Mayo, en 1897. En el edificio, uno de los más lujosos de la ciudad, se hospedaron, entre otros, Ramón Menéndez Pidal, José Ortega y Gasset, Ramón del Valle Inclán, y durante el franquismo fue un refugio para muchos exiliados. Actualmente funciona allí el Sindicato de Trabajadores Gastronómicos.
large hotel in the center of Mar del Plata
French conjurer and magician, 1805-1871
magazine published in Portland, Maine, from 1927 to 1934
Francis Thompson poem, 1893
Conan Doyle mystery novel about Sherlock Holmes, 1902
French lithographer, friend of Pierre Menard
Langston Hughes poem, 1926
lower house of British Parliament
La casa de los mayores, Stevenson fable
Rossetti sonnet sequence, 1881
Jack London story about the South Seas
Werker film, 1934
Conan Doyle, play, 1912.
Hawthorne romance, 1851
T. F. Powys, 1928
George Douglas Brown novel, 1901
English poet and classical scholar, 1859-1936, author of A Shropshire Lad, Last Poems and More Poems
Richard Wright essay in The God That Failed, 1949
Browning poem in Men and Women, 1855
Cómo ganar amigos, cómo influir en la gente, Dale Carnegie self-help book, 1936
Gertrude Stein, 1931
Nigel Morland, 1936
English actor, 1893-1943
Forster novel, 1910, here called El fin
British general during the US Revolutionary War, 1729-1814
US novelist, critic and editor, 1837-1920, author of The Rise of Silas Lapham and other works
one of Orkney isles
gaucho outlaw, known as Hormiga Negra
Parodi: cigarros puros, producidos en La Habana.
Rabanus Maurus Magnentius, German scholar and theologian, c.780-856, author of De universo and De institutione clericorum
Fishburn and Hughes: Archbishop of Mainz, religious teacher and author of erudite theological texts expounding the views of St Augustine. His religious zeal, reflected in his life and writings, verges on extremism. The Cult of the Phoenix
palace in Prague
Fishburn and Hughes: Hradcany A famous castle and landmark in Prague, once the seat of the kings of Bohemia and after 1918 the residence of the President of the Czech Republic. The Secret Miracle
character in Borges story
character in Wu Ch'eng-en novel
in Borges poem, the guardian of the book
character in the Hung Lu Meng or Dream of the Red Chamber
character in Bustos Domecq story
Parodi: dama china que administra el Dragón que se aturde, un bar para marineros.
Chinese scholar, editor of Anthologie de la littérature chinoise, 1932
Chinese Buddhist monk and traveler, c.605-664, author of the Ta-T'ang-Si-Yu- Ki or Memoirs on Western Countries
Icaza indigenista novel, 1934
French missionary Catholic priest and traveller, famous for his accounts of China, Tartary and Tibet (1813-1860).
Literary prize awrded by this Spanish organization. The second place is called Hucha de Plata.
Twain novel, 1885
Butler satirical poem in three parts, 1663- 1678
US folklorist, 1892-1978
British novelist, pseudonym of Sydney Schiff, 1868–1944, author of Myrtle
English writer, born in Argentina, 1841-1922, author of The Purple Land, El Ombú, Far Away and Long Ago, Green Mansions and numerous other works
Fishburn and Hughes: A British naturalist and writer born in Buenos Aires who spent his childhood and youth in Argentina on a ranch in close contact with the gauchos. The Purple Land (1885) is a novel set in the Uruguayan pampas, based on episodes of its history and dominated by its geographical setting. The same qualities characterise Hudson's collection of stories El Ombú (1902) and the romance Green Mansions (1904). Borges describes The Purple Land as 'one of the few happy books on earth' (Other Inq. 144). CF 398: reference to a passage from Hudson's The Naturalist in La Plata in which he quotes from Darwin's Journal of the Voyage of HMS Beagle: 'At sea, a person's eye being six feet above the surface of the water, his horizon is two miles and four fifths distant. In like manner, the more level the plain, the more nearly does the horizon approach within these narrow limits; and this, in my opinion, entirely destroys the grandeur which one would have imagined that a vast plain would have possessed.' In Borges's story the memory of the character Espinosa mixes this quotation with another of Hudson's from Far Away and Long Ago (1918) in which, remembering his childhood experience riding in the pampas, he observes that, sitting on a horse, a man can dominate the widest horizon. The Gospel According to Mark
location of ring for cockfighting in eighteenth-century Buenos Aires
Cansinos poetry anthology, 1921
Asín y Palacios book on the influence of Islam on Christian thinkers, 1941
painting by Manuel Fernández Peña, 1921
author of El elegido, character in Bustos Domecq story
Parodi: supuesto escritor, autor del relato El elegido, un anticipo de los experimentos del doctor Narbondo. Apunta Bioy en Borges: 1140: “Corregimos las pruebas del libro. [Crónicas]. A Trejo, de ‘Los inmortales’, le cambiamos el nombre; le ponemos Huergo. Marcelo N. Huergo suena peor que Marcelo N. Trejo. ¿O simplemente yo me había acostumbrado a que se llamara Trejo? Tuve que pedirle a Borges que cambiáramos el nombre porque existe, desde hace poco en mi conciencia, un muchacho Trejo, que trabaja en una versión para el cinematógrafo de La invención de Morel. Podría interpretar el empleo de su nombre como broma o agresión misteriosa.”
Old English name for the whale
Lobatto collection of poems
US poet, 1902-1967, author of Dear Lovely Death, Shakespeare in Harlem and other works
English born missionary, 1838-1911, author of the Dictionary of Islam, 1885, amongst many other works
French general under Napoleon, father of Victor Hugo
Parodi: Joseph-Leopold-Sigisbert Hugo (1773-1828), fue general del primer imperio napoleónico y padre del poeta y dramaturgo francés Víctor Hugo (1802-1885). Activo en las guerras que siguieron a la Revolución Francesa, en 1806, Joseph-Leopold pasó a servir a José Bonaparte cuando fue nombrado Rey de Nápoles y Sicilia, y en 1808 lo acompañó durante su reinado en España. Además de desempeñar altos cargos militares en Madrid, Hugo actuó como general y gobernador de Ávila, Segovia, Soria, y Guadalajara; por su desempeño se le otorgó el título de Conde de Sigüenza. Ocasionalmente se dedicó a la escritura y publicó varias obras bajo el pseudónimo de ‘Genti’.
French poet, dramatist and novelist, 1802-85, author of Hernani, Notre-Dame de Paris, Les Misérables and countless other works
Fishburn and Hughes: A French poet, author of poetic dramas and novels and one of the leaders of the French Romantic movement. Hugo was also involved in politics. He was a member of the Assembly in 1848 and was exiled for almost twenty years, but finally became a senator of the Third Republic. As a poet Hugo contributed to the innovation of French verse by introducing new themes and diction and new harmonic effects in the use of the stanza. His theatrical work is often based on historical events to which legendary elements are added, as in Hernani (1830). His patriotic sentiments are shown in his famous novels The Hunchback of Notre-Dame (1831) and Les Misérables (1862), as is the pursuit of social and political justice and the theme of moral redemption. Though Hugo's characters are often seen to strive for redemption, thus displaying an affinity with Borges's Fergus Kilpatrick, no reference to the latter has been found in Hugo's poetry. The Gospel According to Mark
Hui Shih, Chinese logician, c.380-c.300
Chilean avant-garde poet and novelist, 1893-1948, author of Poemas árticos, Altazor and other works
“barro medicinal de Huincó”. The Huincó Hot Springs were founded in 1936 and they were located near the city of Mar del Plata. They served both as a source for mineral water and as thermal baths. (Mentioned in Suárez Lynch novella.)
Parodi: las Termas de Huincó, en la zona del puerto de Mar del Plata, en la provincia de Buenos Aires, funcionaron durante los años cuarenta y cincuenta como planta embotelladora de agua mineral y como baños termales y medicinales; los manantiales se extinguieron y Huincó pasó a ser sólo un barrio de Mar del Plata.
Boursier book on sundials, 1937
US science fiction writer, 1905-1975, author of Out of the Unknown, The Winged Man and other works
British crime writer, 1896-1973
iconoclastic English writer, 1883-1917, author of Speculations and The Complete Poetical Works of T. E. Hulme
street in Buenos Aires
Parodi: 1) calle que nace en el predio del Mercado de Abasto.
2) “Agüero esquina Humahuaca”: una esquina frente al Mercado de Abasto (cf. “Doce” i §29) en la que, desde 1907, estuvo ubicado el célebre Café O’Rondeman, un bar de mala fama en el que se inició como cantor Carlos Gardel (cf. “Enfoque” §2). Fue demolido en 2006. La calle Humahuaca es también mencionada en “Limardo” i §11.
valley in Jujuy, near Bolivian border
Saroyan novel, 1943
French newspaper founded by Jean Jaurès in 1904
street in Buenos Aires
Parodi: la calle Humberto Primero recibe ese nombre en honor a Umberto I de Saboya (1844−1900), que fuera rey de Italia entre 1878 y 1900. Por la gran influencia de la inmigración italiana, no es inusual que se la llame “Humberto Primo”, conservando en el nombre el número ordinal en italiano. Se extiende desde el barrio de San Telmo hasta el de Boedo, ambos al sur de la ciudad.
street in Buenos Aires
Scottish philosopher and historian, 1711-66, author of a Treatise of Human Nature, Dialogues concerning Natural Religion and numerous other works
Fishburn and Hughes: A Scottish philosopher who, to quote Bertrand Russell, marks, in the history of Western philosophy, the end of the age of reason and the triumph of scepticism. Tlon, Uqbar, Orbis Tertius: in his Treatise of Human Nature (1739-40) Hume began by accepting the premises of Berkeley and proceeded to demolish them. Whereas Berkeley affirmed that God's perception maintains reality in existence, Hume speaks of the 'probability' of knowledge, referring to the unreliability of any notion empirically derived from inferences which, he asserts, are neither demonstrative nor demonstrable (TL 317). Hume claims that we cannot prove the existence of an objective reality, even though we naturally posit it; all we can affirm is the existence of 'bundles of sensations'. Hume denies the validity of causation, saying that though certain objects or events in our past experience have so far always been related, we cannot conclude from this that they will be related in the future or that they are related in unobserved parts. Hume's sceptical conclusion is that the supposition that the future resembles the past is simply derived from habit (Treatise, book I, part iii, section iv). Hume's scepticism, which finds a passionate echo in Borges (TL 231), extends throughout his system to the point where he discards any practical purpose in philosophy except as an 'agreeable way of passing the time': the narrator of Tlön, Uqbar, Orbis Tertius' at the end of the story also preserves such a sceptical outlook. Averroës’ Search: Hume's 'remote arguments' can be found in his essay 'On Miracles' where he argues that a phenomenon constitutes a miracle - by definition a breach of a law of nature - only if its 'testimony be of such a kind that its falsehood would be more miraculous than the fact which it endeavours to establish'. Tlön, Uqbar, Orbis Tertius; Averroës’ Search
Silva Valdés poem
English barrister and writer on Buddhism, 1901-1983, author of Zen Buddhism, The Middle Way and other works
egg in Mother Goose rhyme, later a character in Lewis Carroll
Arabian philosopher of Hira, called Johannitius in Latin, known for his translations of Aristotle
Fishburn and Hughes: The most important Arab translator of ancient Greek. Bilingual in Syriac and Arabic, he translated Hippocrates and Galen into Arabic and Aristotle into Syriac. He also wrote many original works on medical and philosophical subjects. Ibn-Ishaq belonged to a tribe which had embraced Christianity in the form of Nestorianism, a doctrine which held that there are two separate persons in the incarnate Christ, one divine and the other human. Averroës’ Search
Phillpotts poems, 1929
Fishburn and Hughes: A Chinese text of the seventeenth century by Ts'ao Chan, reputed to be the greatest novel in China. Originally in eighty chapters, an edition published after the author's death included an extra forty chapters which may have been forged. The novel is the saga of the Chia, an upperclass Chinese family, and has thirty major and four hundred minor characters.
Artista del hambre, Kafka story about a hunger artist, 1922 and also a collection of short stories, 1924.
Icelandic history of the bishops of Skalaholt in the 11th and 12th centuries
Fishburn and Hughes: Nomads who came from east of the river Volga, invading Europe in the fourth century as far as the Danube and establishing an empire in Central Europe. They acquired a reputation for military skill and ferocity, and became rich by exacting tribute from people whose lands they agreed not to plunder. In the fifth century the Huns attacked the eastern Roman Empire, advancing deep into Greece. In 452, led by Attila, they invaded Italy but were finally driven away by famine and plague. On his death, Attila's empire was divided among his sons and its power rapidly disintegrated. The Theologians
English poet, critic and journalist, 1784-1859, author of The Story of Rimini
characters in Borges-Levinson story
Spanish humanist, historian, poet and diplomat, 1503-1575
Argentine musicologist, 1894-?
Czech religious reformer and theologian, 1369?-1415
Canadian actor, 1883-1950
English writer, 1894-1963
English evolutionary biologist, 1887-1975
British writer, 1860-1933
English biologist and educator, 1825-1895, author of The Physical Basis of Life, Man's Place in Nature and other works
French novelist, 1848-1907, author of A rebours and other works
character in Stevenson novel
Englishwoman married to William Butler Yeats, 1892-1962, often known as George Yeats
character in Berkeley dialogue
Walter Redfern Turner poem
Gertrud von Le Fort poems, 1937
Outline of Pyrrhonism by Sextus Empiricus
mentioned in Homer's Iliad
character in Homer’s Iliad
ruler of ancient Persia, 6th century B.C., father of Darius the Great