Shand poem in Ferment
Countée Cullen poem, 1921
I Ching, Chinese book of divination based on the study of 64 hexagrams, sometimes called Canon de las Mutaciones and Libro de los Cambios
Parodi: “El Libro de las Transformaciones”: conocido como I Ching o I King, el ‘libro de las mutaciones’ es un texto adivinatorio chino cuyas partes más antiguas se suponen escritas hacia el 1200 a.C. Su contenido original proviene del taoísmo; posteriormente fue ampliado por comentaristas de la escuela de Confucio, que añadieron contenidos filosóficos complementarios. Es uno de los Cinco Clásicos; cf. infra §29.
William Irish, novel, 1948.
Wilkie Collins, 1884.
Liam O'Flaherty memoir, 1931
fragment from the Greek Anthology attributed to Plato
William Irish, collection of short stories, 1943.
Villain in Shakespeare's Othello
famous example of hypallage from Virgil's Aeneid, book 6
pseudonym of Juana Fernández Morales, Uruguayan poet, 1895-1979
poet, author of En nombre de la mar y sus sirenas
Franco-Argentine writer and translator, 1908-86, French translator of Borges and author of La nueva poesía argentina: ensayo critico sobre el ultraísmo
Fishburn and Hughes: "A friend and follower of Borges in his Ultraist period, when a preoccupation with language and its etymology led him to indulge in the playful invention of a private language. Ibarra was one of Borges's first translators and an early critic of his work, and published a perceptive interview with him ('Borges et Borges', L'Herne, 1969). The article in the NRF is, of course, apocryphal." (95)
Fishburn and Hughes: "A form of metempsychosis in which the soul of a man is believed to enter the soul of another during his lifetime. According to Luria, this temporary reincarnation gave rise to the possibility that a righteous man who had died leaving some obligation unfulfilled could unite with the soul of a living man and make good his neglect. Conversely, the soul of a man freed from sin might return to earth to lend support to a weak soul unequal to its task. The diaeresis in the spelling of Ibbur is idiosyncratic)." (95)
the Iberian peninsula, Spain and Portugal
knife-fighter in Buenos Aires
Daniel's brother, knife-fighter in Buenos Aires
Fishburn and Hughes: "A family in Lomas de Zamora, whose legend stems from a text of uncertain origin which was sent to Borges and which he published in an anthology El compadrito (1968). The five brothers and two sisters kept an illegal gambling house, where, at election time, locals were persuaded with free wine and empanadas to favour the Conservative Party. There are certain points in common between the story 'The Intruder' and the legend of one of the Iberra brothers, Julio. He was known for his quick draw in gunfights, lived in a primitive hut near Turdera and was often hounded for stealing other men's women. In time all the Iberras were killed in criollo duels. Their type disappeared in about 1936, when local political bosses began to rely more on police protection than on private bullies." (96)
Moorish writer and poet (860-940).
Arabian historian, d. 894, author of works on the Abbasid caliphs
Fishburn and Hughes: "The name of three well-known viziers of the Abbasid dynasty. This may be of some significance in the context of the story in which the apparent king Ibn Hakkan (Abenjacán) turns out to be Zaid, his vizier." (96)
Arabian historian, 828-889, author of a Kitab ul-Ma'arif or Handbook of History and other works
Fishburn and Hughes: "One of the great Muslim writers of the ninth century, who lived and taught in Baghdad. Apart from his religious commentaries, Ibn Qutaiba wrote on Koranic rhetoric and compiled an anthology of poetic themes. One of his works was regarded as 'a veritable manual of neoclassicism', since it exhorted writers 'to create antique verses on new thoughts'." (96)
Druse character in Bustos Domecq story
Parodi: uno de los drusos, socio de Abenjaldún. El nombre es usual y corresponde a varios personajes históricos, entre otros, al hijo de Mahoma.
brother of Abderrahmen El Masmudi, 19th century Sudan
character in the Arabian Nights
Norwegian poet and dramatist, 1828-1906, author of Peer Gynt, Hedda Gabler and other works
Ecuadorian novelist, 1906-1978, author of Huasipungo
Jardín amor, Kurt Heynicke poem from Das namenlose Angesicht, 1919
state in United States
Saavedra Fajardo political treatise, 1640
Wilder novel about Julius Caesar, 1948
Uruguayan politician and president, 1844-1897
Borges book of essays, 1928
Vicente Rossi, 1929
Mujica Láinez novel, 1952
Muslim geographer and cartographer, 1099-1160
William Irish, short story published in the collection of the same title (1943).
Spanish religious leader, founder of the Society of Jesus, 1491-1556
waterfalls of Iguazú River
river that forms the boundary between Brazil and Argentina
beautiful virgin who married Attila the night of his death
Anatole France novel, 1908
one of the pseudonyms used by Anthony Berkeley Cox, 1893-1971
pseudonym of Ilya Arnoldovich Faynzilberg, 1897-1937, Russian satirist, wrote with Evgeny Petrov
Lopes Vieira poems, 1918
Homer epic poem on the Trojan War
Fishburn and Hughes: "An epic poem about the Trojan war attributed to Homer, consisting of 24 books whose action is confined to the last few weeks of the siege of Troy, ending with the funeral of Hector and the ransoming of his body by Priam. Agamemnon led the Greeks, having called them to arms to defend the honour of his brother Menelaus whose wife Helen had been stolen by the Trojan prince Paris, but the bravest fighter in the Greek camp and the central figure of the poem is Achilles: his name is invoked at the beginning and he is the only one fit to kill the Trojan hero Hector. See Pope." (96-97)
Fishburn and Hughes: "The city of Troy, named after Ilus, its mythical founder. See Iliad." (97)
character in the Conde Lucanor
town in Spain near Toledo
Fishburn and Hughes: "A small town in Uruguay. During the Revolution of 1904, seat of a battle in which the revolutionay forces of Aparicio Saravia were defeated by the National Army." (97)
state in United States
Rimbaud book of prose poems, 1886
Christopher Caudwell book on poetry, 1937
Corneille comedy, 1636
H. M. Tomlinson stories, 1928
Eça de Queiroz novel, published in 1900 in book form
Leonard Frank novella, 1925
Remarque novel on the First World War, 1929
Sudermann collection of short stories, 1886
French expression referring to traditional or naive depiction of something, associated with a printshop founded in Epinal in 1796
Sayers story, 1933
Gerardo Diego creacionista poems, 1922
Molinari book of poems, 1927
Excerpt from Pearson’s Oscar Wilde, His Life and Wit (1946).
Fishburn and Hughes: "A collection of mystical reflections in emulation of the life of Christ written in four books by the Augustinian monk Thomas à Kempis (1380-1471). It describes the various stages of the soul moving away from worldly affections towards union with God. A devotional work of great sincerity, it has been widely influential in the Church." (97)
Laforgue poems, 1886
city in Italy
Ciudad imperial, Elmer Rice, 1937
Lugones historical work on Jesuit Paraguay, 1904
Wilde comedy, 1895
Reyes translation of The Importance of Being Earnest
Argentine publisher, founded by Pablo Emilio Coni in 1853
Capote novel, 1966
Tennyson long poem, 1850
Hemingway collection of short stories, 1925
Entre paréntesis, David Jones book of poems, 1937, with an introduction by T. S. Eliot
Storm of Steel, Ernst Jünger's memoir of the battles of the Western Front, 1920
Yeats book of poems, 1903
Libyan leader who attacked the Athenians, whose story is recounted by Herodotus
Marcelo del Mazo poem from the book Los vencidos
Robert Allerton Parker biography of Father Divine, 1937
Chesterton book of detective stories, 1923
Parodi: "La incredulidad del padre Brown”: volumen de ocho relatos publicado en 1926.
town east of Bombay
Fishburn and Hughes: "A town east of Bombay, in the Poona district of India." (97)
Maurice Magre, 1936
type of school notebook
country in south Asia
Fishburn and Hughes: "Borges often alludes to the vastness of India and the variety of its people, referring to them as 'vertiginous' and emphasising their association with the non-rational and chaotic. Recalling the saying that 'India is larger than the world', Borges uses India as a metaphor of the universe. See Hindustan." (97)
site of battle in Uruguay in 1845 in which Rosas's forces under Urquiza defeated Fructuoso Rivera
Fishburn and Hughes: "More than one battle took place in this locality in Uruguay. The one referred to in ’The Other Death’ is the battle of 1845 when Urquiza, leading the Federalist forces of Rosas, defeated the Unitarians who supported the Uruguayan followers of Fructuoso Rivera." (97)
A Journal of Oriental Research.
Freneau poem, 1788
Radhakrishnan study in 2 vols., 1923-1927
Freneau poem, 1788
state in United States
here, the West Indies
the East Indies
Francisco Soto y Calvo, 1927
Sá Carneiro posthumous book of poems, 1937
Character from the poem Martin Fierro
Hauptmann play, 1920
Indus river, see also Sind
term which refers to the Latin American countries with large Indian populations, term associated with the writings of Víctor Raúl Haya de la Torre
Name for what is now Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia
region in northern India
Fishburn and Hughes: "The land of the Hindus, comprising the valley of the Punjab and Upper Ganges. The Man on the Threshold: sometimes, as here, Borges uses the term for India in general. The Approach to Al-Mu’tasim: the history of strife between Hindus and Muslims in the Punjab and other regions of India is long and violent. Hindu religious practices are polytheistic and, though they fall into different forms of mysticism, all 'teach that the world is illusory', as Borges states (TL 373). The Inmortal: recurrent mythic themes are to be found in most Hindu religions, such as time seen as an endless repetiton of the year, the notion of repeated creations, the idea of eternal return and the doctrine of transmigration. See Wheel." (90)
Vedic warrior and thunder god
Lugones book, 1919
Infanta Isabel de Borbon, princess of Spain who travelled to Argentina in 1910
Spanish heroes mentioned in the Romancero tradition
Dante poem, first part of Divina Commedia
Fishburn and Hughes: "The place of eternal punishment for impenitents. Three Versions of Judas: the allusion to the Redeemer in Hell is an oblique reference to a Christian tradition that of all sinners only Judas and Cain, who lost hope, are unequivocally condemned to eternal damnation. The Theme of the Traitor and the Hero: Inferno, the first of the three canticas of Dante's Divine Comedy, describes Hell and the sinners whose souls inhabit it. Canto X 97-102 concerns heretics and atheists, among whom is Cavalcante de' Cavalcanti. He is the father of Dante's friend Guido, one of the poets of the 'Dolce Stil Nuovo', the lyric school which based the concept of love and the idealisation of woman on religious and philosophical premises. Cavalcante asks Dante about his son, hoping he is still alive. This surprises Dante, who remarks that the damned, while apparently able to prophesy the future, are blind to what is happening in the present. To this Cavalcante answers: 'We see even as men who are farsighted, / those things...that are remote from us; / the Highest Lord allots us that much light.' See Ugolino, Ruggieri. " (87)
Lugones series of short poems in Poemas solariegos
Borges book of stories, 1970
Ford film, 1935, based on the Liam O'Flaherty novel
O'Flaherty novel, 1925
northern suburb of Buenos Aires
Parodi: la localidad de ‘Ingeniero ‘Maschwitz, perteneciente al Partido del Escobar, está situada a unos 50 km al noreste de la Capital; es estación del Ferrocarril Mitre, con cabecera en Retiro (cf. “Doce” i §17).
friend of Borges, dancer and choreographer, daughter of Jose Ingenieros
Fishburn and Hughes: "A friend of Borges who related to him her invented story on which ‘'Emma Zunz' was based." (98)
Argentine microbiologist, magician and essayist, 1915-1997, collaborator with Borges on Antiguas literaturas germánicas, 1951
Argentine positivist philosopher and sociologist, born in Spain, 1877-1925
Fishburn and Hughes: "An epithet of Don Quixote." (98)
Book of travel by Oliveira Martins
character in Borges story
author of A General History of Labyrinths, elsewhere attributed to Silas Haslam
merchant in legend of Buddha
in runic inscription
literary magazine in Buenos Aires, 1923-1926
Baldomero Fernández Moreno, 1915
Work by Alexandra David-Néel.
Borges story, originally called "Los inmortales," 1947
Inmortalidad de el Alma, con que se prueba la Providencia de Dios para consuelo, y aliento de los Catholicos, y vergonzosa confusion de los Hereges
Quevedo, see Providencia de Dios
pseudonym of J. I. M. Stewart, 1906-1994, used for some of his crime fiction
T. F. Powys, 1926
Lenormand play, 1928
Innocent the First, pope, reigned 401-417
Poetry book by Francisco Anselmo Sicardi (1856-1927).
Russell work on meaning and empirical data, 1940
Borges book of essays, 1925
actress in Bustos Domecq story
Parodi: el apellido de esta colaboradora coincide fonéticamente con la sigla INRI, el acrónimo de Iesus Nazarenus Rex Iudaeorum, la inscripción en latín de la cruz de Cristo.
Borges essay included in Evaristo Carriego, 1930
Haedo book of poems, 1923
Hauptmann novel, 1928
German publishing house
Parodi: “unos camiones de nacionalidad canadiense, que el Instituto, siempre atenti, adquirió en calidad de rompecabezas en la Sección Demoliciones del ejército americano”: el ‘Instituto’ alude al Instituto Argentino de Promoción e Intercambio (i.a.p.i.), una entidad estatal creada en 1946 como ente regulador de las importaciones y exportaciones; se encargaba de la comercialización de productos agrícolas y manufacturados y asimismo de bienes de capital (camiones, tractores, ómnibus, trolebuses, etc.). La creación del i.a.p.i. se realizó durante el primer gobierno de Perón (1946-1952), cuando se estatizaron el comercio exterior y las empresas de servicios y transporte públicos, que hasta entonces habían estado en manos de capitales extranjeros, principalmente británicos. En la mayoría de los casos, la recuperación de esas empresas se hizo mediante la compra de vehículos de segunda mano; de ahí que el narrador de “Fiesta” afirme que los camiones canadienses adquiridos eran chatarra, piezas sueltas de desguace, ya fuera de servicio en el ejército norteamericano. El italianismo ‘atenti’ (cf. supra §8) está empleado aquí con valor de adjetivo y con el significado de ‘siempre atento’, ‘alerta’, ‘vigilante’.
part of the Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, Universidad de Buenos Aires, named for Ricardo Rojas
in Bustos Domecq story
Parodi: supuesta empresa en que trabajaba Mascarenhas, dedicada a la venta de diversos productos falsificados de los cuales en “Fiesta” §12 se menciona la Tapioca Científica.
medical institute in Buenos Aires
Parodi: en el “Laboratorio Pasteur”, fundado en 1927, en el barrio de Caballito, ulteriormente denominado Instituto de Zoonosis ‘Luis Pasteur’, se producía y aplicaba la vacuna contra la rabia.
Hernández book on cattle ranching, 1881
Amancio Alcorta, 1916
Parodi: obra del político y escritor argentino Amancio Alcorta (1842-1902), publicada en 1886 y considerada un clásico sobre los planes de estudio de nivel secundario a fines del siglo xix.
Benavente comedy, 1907
Baldomero Fernández Moreno poem
Lugones series of poems in El libro de los paisajes
Benjamín Taborga poem
section of Carriego's posthumous poems
section from Carlos Vega’s book Campo
title of Borges lecture on Dante
Raymond Aron, 1938
St. Francis of Sales
Maritain, part of Eléments de philosophie
Russell book, 1919
Faulkner novel, 1948
Borges story in El informe de Brodie
Excerpt from El deslinde by Alfonso Reyes.
Martínez Estrada stories, 1945
Collection of nouvelles by Guy de Maupassant (1890).
Borges-Bioy script for film directed by Hugo Santiago, 1968-69
science fiction novel by Adolfo Bioy Casares
town in Scotland
Henley poem, 1875
Chesterton story in The Innocence of Father Brown
Wells novel, 1897
Silvina Ocampo’s book of short stories, 1961.
Iolcus, city in Thessalian Magnesia in Greece
early Plato dialogue
Greek island in the Cyclades
Fishburn and Hughes: "A Greek island in the Cyclades said to be the burial place of Homer." (98)
Inuit child in Paul Emile Victor book
state in United States
Uruguayan poet, 1889-1976, author of Tierra honda and other works
Fishburn and Hughes: "A Uruguayan poet of the Ultraist period (c.1925), connected with Borges and the short-lived but important literary magazine Proa. Ipuche, who wrote in the tradition of gaucho poetry, was admired by Borges for his concern to gain the reader's friendship rather than attain perfection of form. Borges dedicated an essay to him, 'La criolledá en Ipuche', in Inq. (1925)." (98)
Latin adage on anger
character in "El Congreso," see Fernandez Irala
character in Borges story
country, see also Persia
According to the small biographical information in the Antología de la literatura fantástica, English erudite born in Hanley in 1871.
English writer and forger of would-be Shakespearean documents and play (1775-1835). He is mentioned in relation to I. A Ireland in the brief biographical information dedicated to the latter in the Antología de la literatura fantástica.
According to the biographical information for I. A. Ireland in the Antología de la literatura fantástica, ancestor invented by English writer and forger William Henry Ireland (1775-1835) to whom I. A. Ireland claims to be related.
Irenaeus, Greek theologian, c.130-202
Spanish fabulist, poet and playwright, 1750-1791
Parodi: “la misma fábula, copiada de Iriarte”: alusión a Tomás de Iriarte (1750-1791), poeta español célebre por sus Fábulas literarias (1782), en las que embiste contra escritores de su época.
Argentinian military officer and chronicler (1794- 1876)
here, references to Hipólito Yrigoyen
Argentine politician and educator, 1822-1906
street in Buenos Aires
Fishburn and Hughes: "A street in central Buenos Aires, now part of Avenida Nueve de Julio, known in earlier times as one of the Calles Largas." (26)
Parodi: “Bernardo de Irigoyen y Avenida de Mayo”: una esquina céntrica de Buenos Aires. La calle Bernardo de Irigoyen es una de las que flanquean la Avenida 9 de Julio. La Avenida de Mayo se extiende desde el Congreso Nacional hasta la Plaza de Mayo. Inspirada en los amplios bulevares creados por el barón Haussmann en París, con edificios públicos y comerciales de estilo neoclásico y art-nouveau. Proyectada en 1882 e inaugurada en 1894 tras la demolición de antiguas construcciones, fue centro de las actividades culturales y punto de reunión de la colectividad española.
Kuno Meyer, 1911
magazine founded by Padraic Colum in 1911
One of the pseudonyms of American novelist and short story writer Cornell Woolrich (1903-1968).
Fishburn and Hughes: "Ireland (Irlanda) The relationship between Protestants, settled in Ireland by Cromwell in the seventeenth century and regarded by the Irish as colonisers and usurpers, and Catholics, who make up most of the population, has been marked by bitter conflict. Catholics were deprived of civil rights and their lands bestowed on English landlords, who cared little for their tenants. In 1823 the Irish patriot Daniel O'Connell helped found the Catholic Association whose aim was to obtain for Irish Catholics the same political and civil rights as those of Protestants. It was suppressed in 1825. The Theme of the Traitor and the Hero: refers, in general, to the rebellion against the landed gentry which took place at the time, particularly in the rural areas. The potato famine of the 1840s led to a formidable agrarian agitation, supported by a constitutional movement which later became the Land League, headed by Charles Stewart Parnell, through whose influence Gladstone introduced a Land Act in 1881. The movement for Home Rule, i.e. self-government by the Irish, found expression in Ireland and some support in the English Parliament throughout the nineteenth century. In 1922, after bitter conflict, it led to the establishment of an independent Ireland, apart from the six northern counties of Ulster, where the Protestants were in the majority, which remained part of the United Kingdom. The Shape of the Sword: this solution was unacceptable to many Irish northerners, who felt threatened, and to the southerners, who felt that the ideal of the Republic had been betrayed. War broke out between the supporters of the Irish Republic and the government of Ireland to whom the British were providing military equipment. The fighting was particularly brutal between June and August 1922." (98)
Elmer Rice play, 1917
Jack London, novel, 1908.
Phillpotts, short story, published in Peacock House and Other Mysteries (1926).
British general, 1880-1959
city in northern Spain on the French border
US author and diplomat, 1783-1859, author of The Sketch-Book, Legends of the Alhambra and other works
name for Jesus in the Arabian Nights
Colombian writer, 1837-1895, author of María
Elizabeth I , queen of England, 1533-1603, called Gloriana by Spenser
Isabel I de Castilla, 1451-1504; with her husband Fernando de Aragón ruler of united Spain; together they are known as the Reyes Católicos
Isaiah, Biblical prophet
Fishburn and Hughes: "An impassioned Hebrew prophet of the eighth century BC. Isaiah's Messianic predictions embody the ideal of the kingdom of God on earth, pointing to a time of world peace, when the nations 'shall beat their swords into ploughshares and their spears into pruning hooks' and 'the wolf also shall dwell with the lamb'. Many of Isaiah's prophecies were interpreted as foreseeing the advent of Jesus. Three Versions of Judas , CF 166: 'For he shall grow before him as a tender plant...': this passage from the Servant's song (53:2-3) foretells the suffering of the Lord's faithful servant. Traditionally these verses have been read as linking the story of the faithful servant Israel to a vision of the incarnation and suffering of Jesus. At the time of the fictional Runeberg's alleged writings (the first decade of the twentieth century) a controversial attempt was made to identify the subject of the prophecy with an historical figure. This could have been the starting point from which Runeberg began to question the identity of the servant as Jesus, transferring the role of the Redeemer to Judas. CF 167: the reference is to Isaiah's prophetic vision of the apocalypse. Exhorting repentance among the people of Israel, Isaiah threatened: 'And they shall go into the hole of the rocks, and into the caves of the earth, for fear of the Lord and for the glory of his majesty, when he ariseth to shake the terrible earth' (2:19)." (99)
book of Isaiah in the Bible
Phillpotts, poetry, 1912.
Tales of Ise, Japanese collection of tanka poems and narratives, ascribed to the ninth-century author Ariwara no Narihara
castle in Iceland
place mentioned in the Gudrun
Esfahan, city in central Iran
Poem by Hilario Ascasubi
poem about Borges's maternal grandfather, in Cuaderno San Martín
Spanish encyclopaedic writer and Church father, c.560-636
name of compadrito in "El compadre"
Novel by french writer Villiers de l'Isle Adam, 1862.
Fishburn and Hughes: "Iskander, as Alexander the Great was known in Persia, was represented on his coins with two horns. One school of Islamic scholars attributes the allusion in the Koran to Zu'1-Qarnain ('he of two horns') to Alexander, others to a contemporary of Abraham. Borges probably refers to the former. A footnote to Night 464 in the 1885 edition of Burton's translation of the Thousand and One Nights deals with the highly idealised Persian version of Alexander. The two horns, probably symbolising the East and the West, have been variously explained as referring to two protuberances on his head or helmet, or two leeks, or the ram horns of Jupiter Ammon. The footnote in Burton also refers to the legend of Iskander as related in the Sikandar Nama e Bara, or Book of Alexander the Great, by Shaikh Nizami (c.1141-1217), the greatest romantic poet in Persian literature. In Canto XXIII, entitled 'Sikander's Mirror-making', the story is told that 'when Sikander became the key of the world, the mirror by his sword appeared'. Alexander was reputed to have been the first to fashion a mirror, and though at the beginning 'no reflection came truly' it became a 'mirror of philosophy' into which anyone could look and behold the truth. See Gog and Magog." (99)
island in Iguazú falls
island across the Paraná from Rosario
poem from Pedro Leandro Ipuche’s Júbilo y miedo
island in Iguazú falls
island in Iguazú Falls
island in Iguazú River
Fishburn and Hughes: "The Arabic word for resignation or surrender (to the will of Allah). Islam was founded in the seventh century by the prophet Mohammed; its principal doctrine is expressed in the Koran. Tlon, Uqbar, Orbis Tertius: God the Indivisible: the basic belief of Islam is the absolute unity of God, of Allah (the only God) and the predestination of all things by him. Deutsches Requiem; ‘initial epochs of Islam' evokes a time of religious fervour." (99)
Also known as South Sea Tales. Stevenson collection of short stories, 1893.
Wells novel about vivisectionist, 1896
Iceland, also called Isla Perdida, Thule, Ultima Thule
Britain and Ireland
Pedro Leandro Ipuche’s birthplace
Book of the Icelanders or Libellus Islandorum, Ari Thorgilsson's history of Iceland including a digression on the discovery and settlement of Greenland
Marti poems for his son, 1882
Work by Ramón Gómez de la Serna, 1931.
Fishburn and Hughes: "A country in the Middle East. CF 172: also, a term for all the Jewish people, irrespective of their country of origin or residence. As a people, they are bound by their allegiance to the Torah, the holy scripture." (100)
poem by Edgar Allan Poe
William Hervey Allen study of Poe, 1926.
Romanian writer, 1884-1935
John Dickson Carr novel, 1930
Graham Greene, novel, 1934.
Ithaca, island in Adriatic ruled by Odysseus
plaza in Palermo section of Buenos Aires, next to zoo and botanical garden
Roman town in Spain, near Seville
Supposed history book by Formento
Giraldus Cambrensis medieval history of Wales
(1738-1822) Jesuit priest and writer. While living in Argentina, he was expelled from spanish territories by Carlos III in 1767.
town in the province of Corrientes, Argentina, site of a battle in 1827 in which Argentine and Uruguayan forces defeated the Brazilians
Fishburn and Hughes: "A battle fought in the province of Corrientes on 20 February 1827 between the Brazilian army and the combined forces of the Argentine Republic and Uruguay, led by Carlos María de Alvear. The Brazilians were defeated, and the war ended soon after." (100)
Swinburne poem in Poems and Ballads, 1866
Tarich film, 1926
Ivan IV, Russian tsar, 1530-1584
Parodi: Iván IV Vasílievich (1530−1584), zar de Rusia entre 1547 y 1584; es considerado uno de los creadores del Estado ruso.
Walter Scott novel, 1819
Village near Kharkiv, Ukarine, Russian Empire. Elías Metchnikoff place of birth.
Title of a tango song
Argentinian translator and Silvina Ocampo's secretary.
Arabian historian cited in the Arabian Nights
mythical king of Thessaly
Fishburn and Hughes: "A character in Greek mythology who was pardoned by Zeus for killing his father-in-law and taken up into heaven. When he tried to violate Hera, however, he was condemned to remain tied to a revolving wheel." (100)
Druse character in Bustos Domecq story
town in Japan