Abu Yusuf Ya-qub Almansur, third emir of the Almohad dynasty, c. 1160-99, ruler of Morocco and Spain.
Fishburn and Hughes: "Abu Yusuf Ya'qub Almansur, third Emir of the Almohad dynasty who defeated Alfonso VIII of Castile on the field of Alarcos in 1195, thus securing for the Arabs an important respite from the onslaught of the Reconquest. Considered the most enlightened of the Almohad Caliphs, Almansur surrounded himself with philosophers, physicians and poets. He encouraged Averroes to write his commentaries on Aristotle. The story is told by Renan that the Emir liked to discuss scientific problems with Averroes. He would invite him to sit on a cushion reserved for his most intimate guests. In the familiarity of these conversations Averroes would 'abandon' himself to the point of saying to his sovereign: 'Écoute, mon frère...' ('But listen, my brother')." (8-9)