Fishburn and Hughes: (1864-1938), An Italian poet, novelist and playwright. D'Annunzio's poetry, characterised by sensual language and neo-classical imagery, shows the influence of the Symbolist movement in Italy. He was an admirer of Nietzsche and exemplified the concept of the 'Superman' and the Dionysiac interpretation of human destiny. D'Annunzio was an eccentric and a showman with a fondness for extravagant language. Pierre Menard, Author of the Quixote
French novelist, 1788-1856
Eugeni d'Ors, Catalan writer, 1881-1954
Fishburn and Hughes: (1866-1909) A Brazilian writer, author of Os sertões (1902: trans. Revolt in the Backlands 1947), a fictionalised account of the uprising at Canudos, in the northern state of Bahía. The rebellion, which took a fanatical tinge, began as an act of defiance against the system of taxation and other centralising measures imposed by the new republican government. Da Cunha participated in the fourth of the expeditions (1896-7) sent to put down the rebels. Steeped in the positive rationalism of the time, he did not at first understand the movement's mystical dimension. But, as events developed, the spirit and bravery of the local peasants, or cabôclos, who preferred death to defeat, soon commanded his admiration. See Antonio Conselheiro. Three Versions of Judas
Argentine physician and writer, brother of Santiago Dabove
Argentine writer, 1889-1949, author of La muerte y su traje
French scholar and translator of the classics, 1654-1720, known as Madame Dacier
scientific periodical edited by Swedenborg in Upsala, 1716-1718
Chesterton story in The Incredulity of Father Brown
German historian and politician, 1785-1860, author of Politik, Geschichte Danemarks, Quellenkunde der deutschen Geschichte and other works
German pastor who arrived in Argentina in 1871, character in Borges story, grandfather of Juan Dahlmann
German Jesuit priest and scholar, 1861-1930, author of Buddha, 1898, Die Sprachkunde und die Missionen, works on the Mahabharata, Nirvana and related topics
character in Borges story
Fishburn and Hughes: "A fictitious name, which may allude to the Danish historian Friedrich Christoph Dahlmann (1785-1860). Borges quotes a passage from Carlyle's introduction to Early Kings of Norway (1875) which mentions Dahlmann (Lit. germ. 169)." (55-56)
German jurist and historian, 1834-1912, important in German nationalism and anti-Semitism
former name of the republic of Benin
Wenceslao de Morães book about Japan, 1897
Hammett novel, 1929
capital of Senegal
leader of Tibetan Buddhism
British writer, c. 1626-1687, author of Didascalocophus, or the Deaf and Dumb Man's Tutor, 1680, and Ars Signorum, 1661
Fishburn and Hughes: "A Scottish philologist who devoted himself to the creation of a universal language and worked on perfecting a 'dactylogy', or language for the deaf and dumb, based on a universally acceptable ideographic system which seeks to express ideas through signs." (56)
Salvador Domènec Felip Jacint Dalí i Domènech, Spanish painter, 1904-1989
character in Ariosto
John of Damascus or Johannes Damascenus, eminent theologian of the Eastern Church, d. c. 754, author of The Fountain of Knowledge
Damascius, Neoplatonist philosopher, 480-c. 540, author of Difficulties and Solutions of First Principles and of various commentaries on Plato dialogues
Damascus, capital of Syria
novel by Alexandre Dumas fils, 1848
character in Borges story
St. Peter Damian, Italian monk and theologian, Doctor of the Church, c. 1007-1072, author of Liber Gomorrhianus, Officium Beatae Virginis and other works
Fishburn and Hughes: "An Italian ecclesiastic, whose writings are recorded in Migne's Patrology. Damiani was prominent in the eleventh-century reform movement for his attack on simony, his advocacy of celibacy of the clergy and his introduction of severe disciplinary practices, including self- flagellation. From his hermitage near Gubbio, Damiani distinguished himself on a political level by his support of Pope Alexander II in the schism against Honorius IV, and for persuading the Emperor Henry IV of Germany not to divorce his wife Bertha.
In his theological treatise De Divina Omnipotentia (1067), Damiani addresses himself to the question of whether God is able to undo the past. The argument springs from a statement by St Jerome, quoted in the first chapter, that virginity cannot be restored once it is lost through intercourse. Damiani's answer is that God can make a woman a virgin again if she so dedicates herself to the spiritual life as to wipe out the memory other previous actions. Equally God chose to destroy in the flood the men he had once created, for their evil removed them utterly from the sole source of being: though men may survive their bad actions, the negative part of their life is non-existent and can therefore be obliterated. Borges's reference to Canto XXI of Dante's Paradiso is to lines 124-5 in which Damiani refers to a confusion of identity after his death, when he was taken for another 'Pietro', who also founded a monastery near Ravenna and was known as Peccatore, the Sinner, on account of his public life before retiring into the Church." (56)
Italian chemist and agronomist, count, 1758-1819, author of Les Hommes nouveaux, ou moyen d'operer une regeneration nouvelle
Argentine poet, author of La tierra, character in Borges story
Fishburn and Hughes: "In 'The Aleph', a fictional character whose surname may be a contraction of, and a parodic allusion to, Dante Alighieri, the poet whose presence underlies the story. Like the Florentine master, Daneri had a vision of the whole of the universe which he sought to encompass in his poem. See Beatriz Viterbo, Augural Canto." (56)
Old English poem in the Junius Manuscript
cousin of Baltasar Espinosa, character in Borges story
character in Jewish story about truth and falsehood
pseudonym of Henri Petiot, 1901-1965, biographer of Rimbaud
US writer, 1905-82, co-author with his cousin Manfred Lee of the detective novels of Ellery Queen, and co-editor of Ellery Queen's Mystery Magazine
Portuguese writer, 1876-1962
Parodi: fue un médico, escritor, diplomático, político y periodista portugués, miembro de varias academias, incluida la Real Academia Española; individuo de ideas arcaizantes y ultraconservadoras. De su vasta obra, alcanzó gran celebridad el drama La cena de los cardenales (1902).
Eliot essay in The Sacred Wood, 1928
Italian poet, 1265-1321, author of the Divina Commedia, the Vita Nuova, De Monarchia and other works
Fishburn and Hughes: "Italy's foremost poet, born in Florence, where he held several political offices as a member of the Bianchi faction. When Charles de Valois, brother of the King of France, was called into the city by the Pope in 1302 and a new government was constituted under the Neri, Dante was exiled, never to return. He is best known for his Vita Nuova (1294), inspired by his love for Beatrice Portinari, and his Divine Comedy, published between 1310 and 1320. The Divine Comedy consists of a hundred cantos describing the poet's mystical journey through Hell and Purgatory to Heaven and salvation. Many mythological and historical figures illustrate the three kingdoms and are placed according to their deserts, following the principles of Christian theology and its system of punishment and retribution. Although Dante's sense of justice never fails, his opinions of his contemporaries and his civic experiences are given full rein.
Three Versions of Judas: the 'fiery grave' to which Dante would have condemned Nils Runeberg is a reference to Cantos IX, X and XI of Hell which describe the circles of the heretics.
The Wait: the last circle in Hell is the one in which traitors are punished.
See Ugolino, Ruggieri." (56-57)
Parodi: “el Dante publicó la Divina Comedia”: poema teológico escrito por Dante Alighieri (1265−1321); las tres partes de la obra −Infierno, Purgatorio y Paraíso− fueron compuestas entre 1304 y 1321.
Dante's son, author of commentary on the Divina Commedia
Dante's son, a Verona lawyer, d. 1364, author of a commentary on the Divina Commedia
Danube river in Europe
Fishburn and Hughes: "The second largest river in Europe after the Volga, rich in historical and political associations. Deutsches Requiem: the crossing of the Danube in 1916 probably refers to the German
counter-attack after the Brusilov offensives and the Russian attempt to regain lost territories." (57)
Study of argentinian folklore written by Carlos Vega
German literary historian, 1818-1850
the Dardanelles or Hellespont, strait between the Balkan peninsula and Anatolia
Roman province in the Balkans
Fishburn and Hughes: "The name given by the Romans to the territory now corresponding to southern Serbia, derived from its first inhabitants, the Dardani, an Illyrian tribe first mentioned in the Iliad (2.819, 15.425). Under Constantine Dardania became part of the Roman province of Illyria, and its inhabitants were converted to Christianity." (57)
region of the ancient world, now in Kosovo
Village in the North West part of England, part of the ceremonial county of Cheshire.
Saroyan short fiction, 1934
Darius or Darayavaush, Persian king, 521-486
pseud. of Félix Rubén García Sarmiento, Nicaraguan poet, short-story writer and critic, 1867-1916, author of Prosas profanas, Cantos de vida y esperanza, Canto a la Argentina and numerous other works
city in west Bengal in India
Bradbury science fiction book, 1947
English ornithologist, ecologist and writer, 1903-1979
restaurateur in Geneva, character in Bustos Domecq story
Parodi: supuesto creador del primer tenebrarium en 1932 en Ginebra.
street in Lomas de Zamora
town in the province of Buenos Aires near Bahía Blanca
Parodi: “en la esquina de Darragueyra”: una calle de apenas cinco cuadras en el barrio de Palermo que lleva el nombre de José de Darregueyra [sic] y Lugo (1771-1817), jurisconsulto; diputado por Buenos Aires en el Congreso de Tucumán.
part of port of Buenos Aires
Parodi: “en la escalinata de la aduana de la Dársena Sur”: la dársena del puerto de Buenos Aires a la que llegan los barcos provenientes de Montevideo.
plateau in Devonshire, England
Parodi: “el horror del páramo de Dartmoor, bajo la neblina británica, el gran mastín fosforescente”: alusión a The Hound of the Baskervilles, tercera novela de A. Conan Doyle, publicada en 1902 y protagonizada por Sherlock Holmes. La historia se basa en una leyenda popular sobre un animal monstruoso, un perro, que rondaba en Cromer, una población de Norfolk, en la costa este de Inglaterra, y que Conan Doyle situó en Dartmoor, en la costa suroeste, en el condado de Devon, combinando el enigma policial con el relato de terror.
street in Buenos Aires
English natural scientist, 1809-1882, author of The Origin of Species and Voyage of the Beagle
English physician and scientist, 1731-1802
English writer, 1817-1896, author of an Icelandic grammar and translator of the Njals Saga, the Prose Edda, the Gisli and other works
character in Borges story
French novelist and playwright, 1840-97, author of Lettres de mon moulin, L'Arlesienne and other works
Fishburn and Hughes: "A French humorist, author of Les Aventures prodigieuses de Tartarin de Tarascon (1872) whose protagonist personifies the good-natured bombastic hero. Famous in his home town for his exploits in the chase, Tartarin is sent to hunt the great lions of the Atlas. Once in Algiers, he first shoots a bourricot (little donkey) in a carrot field, which he assumes to be the desert, and eventually kills an old blind lion, whose remains he sends back to Tarascon. The novel concludes with his triumphant return to relate his exploits to ecstatic crowds. Its success led to a sequel, Tartarin sur les Alpes (1885)." (57)
Fishburn and Hughes: Argentine society ladies, daughters of the patrician women who, during the wars of Independence, gave their jewels to help San Martín cross the Andes. The Elderly Lady
French writer, 1898-1944, author of Le Contre-Ciel and of works on a variety of spiritual topics
magazine of the Argentine Jewish community
Biblical king of Israel, c. 1012-c. 972
Fishburn and Hughes: "The second king of Israel, first king of the Judaean dynasty.
Deutsches Requiem: the incident mentioned alludes to the sequel to the story of Uriah the Hittite, whom David sent to the front line so that he could marry his wife Bathsheba with whom he had committed adultery. The prophet Nathan tells David a parable of a rich man with many flocks who took a poor man's only ewe lamb to offer it to a visitor at his table. When David heard the story 'his anger was greatly kindled against the man', whereupon he was told: 'Thou art the man' (II Samuel 12:7).
Guayaquil: alludes to the description of David dancing, as he brought the Covenant into Zion: 'And David danced before the Lord with all his might...'(II Samuel 6:14)." (57-58)
Cukor film, 1934
Dickens novel, 1849-50
Anglo-French writer on Buddhism, 1868-1969, author of Voyage d'une Parisienne a Lhassa, Puissance du neant and Mystiques et magiciens du Thibet
philosopher, author of The Free Will Controversy, 1942
English classical scholar, 1679-1732, editor and commentator on Cicero
Welsh poet, 1871-1940
US film star, 1908-89
Fishburn and Hughes: A river crossed by Saravia on his way to the battle of Masoller. The Other Death
Vanini anti-religious work, 1616
Song written by Àngel G. Villoldo
Seis toros por domingo, Joseph Peyré book on bullfighting, 1938
St. Augustine philosophical and religious work, written 413-427
Swedenborg theological work, 1758, sometimes called El cielo y el infierno and Heaven and Hell
ballad formerly attributed to Zúñiga
Boethius philosophical dialogue
Fishburn and Hughes: (1400-1464). A German cardinal, scientist and philosopher, influential in Renaissance thought for the doctrine of human knowledge expounded in Of Learned Ignorance (1440). Arguing that the essential nature of God, from whom everything flows and returns was unknowable, De Cusa concluded that all human knowledge was simply 'learned ignorance'. His philosophy was humanistic, with pantheistic tendencies. His cosmology, anticipating Copernicus, held that the earth moves round the sun. Reference is to De Cusa's preoccupation with straight lines which, according to him, were segments of a large circle. Ibn-Hakam al-Bokhari, Murdered in His Labyrinth
Cicero theological work, 44 B.C.
Parodi: la última obra publicada por César Paladión, en 1919, se corresponde con el tratado filosófico en dos volúmenes, De divinatione, escrito en 45 a.C. por Marco Tulio Cicerón (106 a.C.-43 a.C.).
Erigena theological treatise
Nikolaus von Cusa treatise
Milton religious work, published posthumously in 1825
one of Plutarch's Pythian dialogues
The mother of Hilario Ascasubi
Cicero theological work
character in Bustos Domecq story
Parodi: “ya hablé con De Filipo y con Camargo”: dos supuestos jugadores de Abasto Junior.
character in Bustos Domecq and Suárez Lynch stories
Parodi: personaje de Modelo, también mencionado en Nuevos cuentos, cf. “Salvación” viii §§1 y 2. Supuesto clérigo de alta jerarquía, además de una figura destacada en la cultura local; es conferencista en La Casa de Arte (cf. “Toros” i §1) y autor de una “novelita de primera comunión”. El apellido del Monseñor coincide con el del conde Angelo De Gubernatis (1840-1913), filólogo, poeta y fundador del orientalismo italiano. Entre sus obras se cuentan Dizionario biografico degli scrittori contemporanei (1878), Piccola enciclopedia indiana (1867), Fonti vediche (1868). El conde era una figura conocida en la Argentina: en 1897, De Gubernatis llegó a Buenos Aires enviado por el rey Humberto I con el proyecto de abrir un museo argentino en Roma. Dio conferencias en Buenos Aires, en La Plata y en Mendoza, y al regreso del viaje escribió L'Argentina; ricordi e letture (1898). Es dable conjeturar que Borges conocía al menos parte de su obra ya que De Gubernatis publicó en 1874 un célebre tratado sobre mitología zoológica y leyendas de los animales del agua, de la tierra y del aire (Mythologie zoologique ou les légendes animales), que sin duda no pasó inadvertido al futuro autor de El libro de los seres imaginarios (1967).
Copernicus popular treatise, the Commentariolus of 1530, a short version of his later major work De revolutionibus orbium coelestium, 1543
15th century mystical work attributed to Thomas à Kempis
Cornelius Agrippa von Nettesheim, 1531
Hrabanus Maurus treatise
character in Suárez Lynch novella
Parodi: 1) Bimbo de Kruif, personaje sólo de Modelo; casado con Loló Vicuña. El término italiano bimbo, niño, se emplea aquí como sobrenombre cariñoso.
2) “el quiosco gratis de la frau Bimbo De Kruif”: se refiere a la glorieta que la señora Loló Vicuña destina a las “prácticas venusinas”.
Bruno treatise, 1584
Luther treatise, 1520
Borges text written for an exhibit catalogue of Juan Carlos Faggioli, 1966
Del sufrimiento a la plentitud, Keyserling book written in French, 1938
Edmondo de Amicis geography book for children
Parodi: relato breve incorporado a la novela Corazón, escrita por Edmondo De Amicis (1846-1908) y publicada en 1886. “De los Apeninos a los Andes” narra la historia de Marco, un niño que viaja desde Italia a la Argentina en busca de su madre. De los Apeninos a los Andes de César Paladión se publicó en el período 1911-1919.
Περὶ τῶν Ἐκλελοιπότων Χρηστηρίων, Plutarch on the failure of oracles
Pérez Zelaschi, short stories, 1976.
Book by Ambrosio Juan Althaparro
Reyes brief essay in Reloj de sol
US film director, 1881-1959
Dante treatise, 1309-1312
Cicero theological work
didactic treatise by Martianus Capella, c.420
Anglada acrobatic poem
De las doctrinas fundamentales, Origen
Origen theological treatise
Fishburn and Hughes: "The most important dogmatic work of Origen (c.185-c.254). The original Greek text is mostly lost, and what remains is a Latin translation by Rufinus. The first three books are on the nature of God, the fall of the soul, anthropology and ethics; the fourth explains the divinity of the Scriptures. The text expounds the four main points in which Origen departed from orthodoxy: namely, the pre-existence of the human soul, the pre-existence of the human soul of Christ, the resurrection of the body into a purely ethereal being, and the final redemption of all men, and devils, through Christ's mediation.
CF 202: The passage comes from book 2 in which Origen professes the unceasing variety of all spiritual and physical events, arguing against those who assert that worlds 'will come into existence which are not dissimilar to each other' so that 'it will come to pass that Adam and Eve will do the same thing...there will be ...the same deluge... Judas will also a second time betray the Lord... Paul... will keep the garments of those who stoned Stephen...' (ch.3, sect.4)." (58)
Wilde autobiography and prison memoir, 1905
Plutarch's book about animals. Volume XII of his work Moralia (c. 100 AD).
English writer, 1785-1859, author of Confessions of an English Opium Eater, On Murder as one of the Fine Arts, Autobiographic Sketches, On the Knocking at the Gate in Macbeth and other works
Fishburn and Hughes: "An English essayist, remembered chiefly for Confessions of an English Opium Eater (1821). De Quincey exerted a strong influence on Borges's fiction (see Christ, The Narrow Act, NY 1969). Though Borges never wrote specifically on De Quincey, he acknowledged his 'vast debt' to him (Biathanatos, Other Inq.) and often quoted from his collected Writings, generally citing the 1889/90 David Masson edition.
Tlon, Uqbar, Orbis Tertius CF 70: reference to De Quincey's statement that the Lutheran pastor Johannes Valentinus Andreä (1586-1654) was the author of an anonymous text from which the community of the Rosae Crucis (Rosicrucians) derived (vol. 12, 405/10).
The Immortal CF 195: the 'interpolation' mentioned refers to the description of the City of the Immortals inspired by De Quincey's account of a set of plates by Piranesi. These plates, illustrating the visions of De Quincey's delirium, present images of 'gothic halls' and stairs which reach 'an abrupt termination, without any balustrade, and allowing no step onwards to him who should reach the extremity' (vol. 5, 439). The plate called 'The Gothic Arch' from the Carceri set may be particularly relevant.
For Three Versions of Judas, see 'Not one but all things...'" (58-59)
Jordanes history of Gothic kings
Lucretius didactic poem
Fishburn and Hughes: "'On the Nature of Things': a didactic and philosophical poem in six books by the Roman poet Lucretius (c.95-55 BC) in which the universe is explained, from an Epicurean point of view, as the result of the chance encounter of atoms rather than the intervention of the gods.
The Faust-like traits found in De Rerum Natura refer to its challenge to religion, liberating man from the fear of death." (59)
Juan de Panonia treatise
Carriego poem, published posthumously
Tertullian treatise, c.200
work condeming all three Abrahamic religions, published in 1598
lines from a Daniel Ibarra poem
Hrabanus Maurus treatise
Lhomond historical work
US astrologer, 1882-1960, author New Frontiers of Psychology and an Encyclopedia of Astrology
René Gérard Tavernier poem
Stevenson-Hedley play based on the life of an Edinburgh deacon, 1741-1788
Argentinian tango composer and director, 1890-1963. Known as "Bachicha".
Street in the city of Córdoba
street in Buenos Aires
Langston Hughes, 1931
author of biography of Richard Burton, book on history of the tank, book on pirates, etc.
Innes mystery, 1936
Agatha Christie, novel, 1944.
Carter Dickson, novel, 1938.
Hemingway book on bullfighting, 1932
Browning poem in Dramatis Personae, 1864
Aldington novel, 1929
Arthur Miller play, 1949
Milward Kennedy, 1931
Dickson Carr, novel, 1935.
Kipling's book, 1926.
poem on Portuguese conquests in Asia and Africa, begun by João de Barros and continued by Diogo do Couto
Essay by Oscar Wilde (1889).
Boccaccio tales, assembled between 1349 and 1351
Parodi: un centenar de relatos, en buena parte eróticos, recopilados por Giovanni Boccacio (1313-1375) entre 1349 y 1351; dentro de la ficción, aparecen como narrados por un grupo de mujeres y hombres que huyendo de la peste de 1348 durante diez noches se reúnen en las afueras de Florencia, donde cada uno de ellos cuenta una historia.
Wilde essay in Intentions, 1891
Farid ud-din Attar
Gibbon history, 1776-1788
André Gide booklet, 1941
Daedalus or Daidalos, architect in Greek myth
character in Joyce's Portrait of the Artist and Ulysses
Lugones verse preface to Poemas solariegos
English novelist, 1877-1950
Shelley essay, 1821
Name given in the Antología de la literatura fantástica to an excerpt from Joyce's Ulysses.
English writer, c.1660-1731, author of Robinson Crusoe, Moll Flanders and other works
French painter and sculptor, 1834-1917
Betina Edelberg poem
Los grados del saber, Jacques Maritain, 1932
Excerpt of The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym (1838) by Edgar Allan Poe.
Gustavo García Saraví book with Borges preface, 1968
Argentine theosophist, 1889-1967, Güiraldes's wife and Neruda's sister-in-law
Argentine painter, 1884-1989, Adelina Del Carril's sister and Neruda's third wife
Del César Julio César y de cómo sus mejores amigos le infirieron veintitrés heridas mortales en el Ayuntamiento de Roma
title translated from the German of a 1660 version of Shakespeare's Julius Caesar
Paul Groussac, 1925
Giuseppe Giovanni Luigi Enrico Lanza di Trabia, Italian philosopher, poet and nonviolent activist, 1901-1981
French painter, 1798-1863
state in United States
Portuguese woman, partner of the caudillo Francisco Ramírez
French writer, one of the French translators of Faulkner
ancient city in India, now part of New Delhi, the capital
Fishburn and Hughes: "The capital of the state of Delhi, which borders on the Punjab. The old town is enclosed by stone walls, built in the seventeenth century, whose towers were made into bastions by the British in 1810.
In 1857 Delhi was besieged by rebels for five months during the Indian Mutiny. John Nicholson (1821-1857), an Irish soldier who had served in the Bengal Army and fought in Kashmir and the Punjab during the second Anglo-Sikh war, raised the siege; he died of wounds soon after." (59)
hotel in Adrogué, inaugurated in 1872, now demolished
Argentine writer, friend of Borges, b. 1923
Sylvia Pankhurst, 1935
Parana delta west of Buenos Aires
Greek earth goddess
character in Martinez Estrada novel 'La inundación'
Democritus, Greek philosopher, c. 460-c. 360, author of the Mikros Diakosmos and other works, almost completely lost
Murena’s book of poetry, 1964.
devils of various kinds
Dostoevski novel, The Devils or The Possessed
Demosthenes, Greek orator and statesman, c. 384-322
Fishburn and Hughes: "The most celebrated ancient Greek orator, whose speeches against Philip of Macedon roused the Athenians to fight for the freedom of Greece. A proposal that a golden crown be awarded to Demosthenes for public services was contested by his rival Aeschines, whose speeches had facilitated Philip's entry into central Greece and the consequent capitulation of Athens. Later, while Philip's son Alexander was absent from Greece, Demosthenes attacked Aeschines in his oration On the Crown; to discredit him he described how as a boy Aeschines had helped his mother in her ritual initiations. From this passage (CF: 202) Borges derives the reference to the Orphic mysteries. Despite the success of On the Crown, Demosthenes' life continued full of strife. He was sentenced to death and committed suicide. The rivalry between Demosthenes and Aeschines is consistent with the theme of rivalry in 'The Theologians'." (59)
US boxer, 1895-1983
Fishburn and Hughes: "Borges was an admirer of old Danish sagas: witness his comments on the Gesta Danorum, a work in sixteen volumes by the twelfth-century Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus.
In his discussion of this book, Borges remarks on the cruelty and intrepid horsemanship displayed by the Danes in their conquest of Ireland (Lit. germ., 190)." (59-60)
mountain in the Alps
Parodi: uno de los picos de la cadena montañosa Mont du Chat, que se extiende a lo largo de la costa occidental del lago del Bourget; alcanza una altura de 1390 metros.
Lenormand play, 1924, here called by mistake El viento rojo (Le vent rouge)
capital of state of Colorado
Deodorus Siculus, Διόδωρος Σικελιώτης, Greek historian, fl. 60-30 B.C.
minstrel, character in the Old English poem Deor
Old English poem in the Exeter Book
Parodi: “esa tarde se jugaba el desquite de Excursionistas contra Deportivo Español”: dos clubes de fútbol de Buenos Aires. El Club Atlético Excursionistas, afincado en el barrio de Belgrano, y Deportivo Español, con sede en la zona sur del barrio de Flores.
borough of London
illustrated German dictionary, 1937
Ernst Jünger book on the First World War, 1926
Alfred Rosenberg, 1930
Irish writer, 1724-1769, friend of Johnson and Boswell
Borges essay, later included in Evaristo Carriego
Vicente Rossi, 1935
French mathematician, 1591-1661
ghost in Lord Halifax's Ghost Book
French philosopher, 1596-1650, author of Discours de la Méthode, Traité des passions de l'âme, Meditationes de prima philosophia, Principia philosophiae and other works
Fishburn and Hughes: "A celebrated French philosopher, regarded as the father of modern philosophy, whose method, enunciated in his Discours de la méthode (1637), is based on the principle that no statement is valid until proved to be so. Starting from a condition of total doubt, Descartes arrives at the initial proposition that, in order to doubt, one has to think and therefore to exist:'dubito, ergo cogito, ergo sum.' His methodological principle is that anything which we 'perceive clearly and distinctly' must exist. Since we think of God, the perfect being, he must exist, for such an idea could not originate from our imperfect nature unless it had been implanted there by God. Moreover the very nature of perfection involves, among other attributes, that of existence, which proves the existence of God: the Ontological Argument. Being perfection, God cannot deceive us; therefore we must believe any phenomenon true to which our consciousness testifies with clarity and distinctness: this implies that the world also exists. Descartes believed in the dualism of spirit and substance which he held to be reconcilable only through the influence of God.
Pierre Menard, Author of the Quixote: Descartes made a notable contribution to geometry, showing how geometrical problems could be resolved in algebraic terms. He proposed that this same method could be used to set out all existing knowledge systematically, in universally understandable symbols, which would lead to a universal language, a project that interested many other philosophers, such as Wilkins and Leibniz. See Characteristica Universalis, Pierre Chanut." (60)
Poe story, 1841
Gray translation of Baldrs Draumar
French scholar, 1881-1925, author of Flaubert, sa vie, son caractère et ses idées
Torres Villaroel sonnet in Correo del otro mundo
Alberto Hidalgo book, 1928
Maurice Abramowicz prose piece
Swift poem, 1709
Swift poem, 1709
According to Cuentos breves y extraordinarios short story by Martin Buber.
character in Shakespeare's Othello
Knud Holmboe book on Libya, 1931
Zane Grey novel, 1913
Desierto de los tártaros, Dino Buzzati, 1940
A short story written by José Sixto Alvarez.
Bloy autobiographical novel, 1886
tale by from the anthology Cuentistas de la Alemania libre
Ortega y Gasset essay, 1925
Alfonso Reyes, 1944.
Excerpt from Private Army by Pekianoff (1950).
magazine edited by Borges and Bioy Casares in 1936
Parodi: Destiempo fue el nombre de una revista fundada por Borges y Bioy en 1936. La Editorial Destiempo publicó en 1937 Luis Greve, muerto, de Bioy Casares y Marea de lágrimas de Ulises Petit de Murat; en 1938, Diez poemas sin poesía, de Nicolás Olivari y Mallarmé entre nosotros, de Alfonso Reyes. Recuerda Bioy en La otra aventura, “Libros y amistad”: “En 1936 fundamos la revista Destiempo. […] reunió en sus páginas escritores ilustres y llegó al número 3” (171).
personification of fate or destiny
Cancela and Pilar de Lusarreta, short story.
poem by Ildefonso Pereda Valdés
Ghazali treatise, Tahafut-ul-falasifa or The Incoherence of the Philosophers
Averroes treatise, Tahafut-ul-Tahafut or Incoherence of the Incoherence
Spender essay, 1935
Organization formed in 1930 by a group of British mystery writers. Its first president was Chesterton.
Carriego poem in Las misas herejes
João de Deus de Nogueira Ramos, Portuguese poet, 1830-1896
German philologist and philosopher, 1845-1919, whose chief work was Allgemeine Geschichte der Philosophie, with sections on the India, Bible, and Western philosophy from the Greeks to Schopenhauer
Fifth book of the Hebrew Bible.
Cornucopia del burgués alemán, Meyrink, 1913, date given here as 1904
German periodical edited by Sudermann in 1881-82
Borges story, 1946
Fishburn and Hughes: "Literally 'requiem in German', also understood as 'requiem for Germany': a choral work by Brahms composed upon the death of his mother and first performed in Vienna in 1867. In spite of its devotional and liturgical associations, it dwells upon problems of individual human destiny without mention of Christ." (60)
Heine work from 1844, translated into Spanish with Borges preface, Alemania. Cuento de invierno
Godhead in Buddhism
French writer known for his use of slang, 1901-1960
Sternberg film, 1935
Ellery Queen novel, 1938
George Bernard Shaw play
region in western England
ghost in Lord Halifax's Ghost Book
monster in the Book of the Dead of the ancient Egyptians that eats the souls of liars
US critic and novelist, 1897-1955, author of Mark Twain's America, The Course of Empire, Across the Wide Missouri and other works
official of British Council in Buenos Aires, character in Borges story
Fishburn and Hughes: "A possible allusion to John Dewey (1859-1952), a leading pragmatist philosopher and exponent of 'instrumentalism'. This theory qualifies the traditional notion of 'truth', suggesting that propositions are to be judged not by whether what they describe is true but by their effectiveness. Instrumentalism could be illustrated by the tale told by the 'old man' to the narrator, whose value lies not in the truth of its content but in its effectiveness in delaying the investigation until justice is done. At the beginning of the final paragraph, when the tale has achieved its purpose, the whole event comes to an abrupt end and the narrator feels dismissed, as if he 'no longer existed'." (60)
US philosopher, 1859-1952
biographer and editor of Dickens, including a 3 volume edition, 1938, of Dickens's letters
town in Mallorca
collection of the sayings of the Buddha
celestial buddha, of whom the historical buddha was just a projection, according to Mahayana Buddhism
US translator, b. 1933, for a time the translator of Borges
Carriego lunfardo poem
Parodi: desde 1900 se celebra el 29 de agosto. El almanaque argentino está tan plagado de efemérides que varios días del año concentran tres y cuatro festividades, algunas tan inesperadas como el “Día del acoplado y el remolque”; el “Día de la refrigeración”; el “Día del remero”, el “Día del aluminio”, entre muchas otras. Borges y Bioy no omiten referencias a estas fechas en su obra en colaboración, haciendo que algunos personajes les concedan una importancia desmedida. Se mencionan el Día del kilo, el Día del reservista, el Día del Mar, el Día del Vigilante, el Día del Suboficial, el Día del Colectivero, el Día de la Primavera, el Día de la Raza.
Newspaper from La Plata, Argentina.
mentioned in Suárez Lynch novella
Parodi: supuesta marca de moda femenina.
street in La Plata
Greek poet and sophist of Melos, 5th century B.C.
literary organ of the US Transcendentalist movement, 1840-1844
Diálogos de amor, León Hebreo, 1535
Plato dialogues: see also individual titles
Berkeley philosophical dialogue, 1713
Roman goddess of the hunt and of the moon, associated with the Greek Artemis
Fishburn and Hughes: "The Roman goddess of hunting, chastity, the moon and childbirth, identified with the Greek Artemis, twin sister of Apollo.
The Greek statue of Diana the Huntress in the Louvre is commonly regarded as a companion piece to the Vatican's Apollo Belvedere. Both statues were much copied as ornamental figures in Neoclassical formal gardens." (61)
Bioy Casares novel, 1969
series of Soviet films on World War II
Boswell's London and European diaries, at least a dozen of which have been published
Leopoldo Marechal, 1926
Silvina Ocampo, short stories, 1970.
popular nickname for Michele Pezza, famous Italian brigand, 1771-1806
Spanish translator of St. Augustine, active in the early twentieth century
military officer and chronicler, born in Paraguay, 1558-1629, author of Historia del descubrimiento y conquista del Río de la Plata o La Argentina manuscrita (1612).
Argentine modernist poet, director of El Mercurio de América from 1898 to 1900
local thug in Buenos Aires
Juan Díaz de Solís, Spanish navigator, d. 1516, discoverer of the River Plate for Spain, captured and killed by Indians somewhere on the Uruguayan coast
Argentine poet, 1862-1947
Excerpt from The London Adventure (1924) by Arthur Machen.
precisely what dictionary is referred to here is difficult to know
Tobías Garzón, 1910 Prólogo, PG1, xxiv.
Edited by Enrique Udaondo
Book edited by Augusto Malaret
presumably a reference to the 1855 dictionary by Rafael María Baralt
dictionary of the Castilian tongue, first published in 1780
projected book by Guillermo Juan Borges
column in the NRF
J. Fernández, 1867
Montaner y Simon, 1898
Roque Barcia, 1887
Villamayor's El lenguaje del bajo fondo, 1915
Fernández Saldaña, 1945
Soergel critical work, 1911, with expanded later editions
English novelist, 1812-1870, author of David Copperfield, Oliver Twist, Martin Chuzzlewit, Pickwick Papers and numerous other works
lawyer in Amherst, Massachusetts, father of Emily Dickinson
US poet, 1830-86
Dictionary of Correspondences, Representatives and Significatives, Derived from the Word of the Lord
Swedenborg work, numerous editions
Samuel Johnson, 1755
Parodi: Valentino Silvio Bompiani (1898-1992) escritor y dramaturgo italiano fue el fundador, en 1929, de la Editorial Bompiani, dedicada principalmente a la edición de obras enciclopédicas. En 1938 publicó los dos volúmenes de la Enciclopedia Pratica Bompiani. Cultura, vita civile, famiglia, a la que siguieron, entre otros, el Dizionario Bompiani delle opere e dei personaggi di tutti i tempi e di tutte le letterature (1946-50). En 1957 editó la Enciclopedia filosofica Bompiani. En 1938 Borges escribió en El Hogar una reseña sobre la primera de las enciclopedias. Su comentario destaca especialmente la marcada tendencia política de las entradas sobre cultura e historia, que exaltan el régimen fascista italiano. Especifica el contenido: “breves diccionarios geográficos, biográficos, mitológicos y económicos, una tabla de logaritmos y un panorama de la gramática latina, alemana, inglesa y francesa.” (Cautivos 282).
the French Academy's dictionary, first published in 1694
French writer and scholar, 1713-1784, author of Jacques le fataliste, Pensees philosophiques and countless other works
queen of Carthage, character in the Aeneid
French archeologist, 1806-67, author of Iconographie chrétienne and founder of the Annales archéologiques
Spanish poet and critic, 1896-1987, compiler of anthology of modern Spanish poetry, co-winner of Premio Cervantes with Borges
probably the angelical Englishwoman S. D. to whom Borges dedicated Historia universal de la infamia
nickname for a character in Bustos Domecq and Suárez Lynch
Parodi: 1) personaje de Modelo; reaparece en “Fiesta” §1. El apodo puede deberse a que tiene un diente muy pequeño o, por antífrasis, uno muy grande.
2) personaje de Modelo (cf. iv §2); amigo y correligionario del narrador de “Fiesta”.
medieval hymn on the wrath of god
Teodorico de Verona, character in the Nibelungenlied, based on Theodoric the Great
German singer and actress, 1901-1992
unfinished Hugo poem, 1891
ten commandments given by God to Moses
Spanish scholar, poet, essayist and literary critic, 1879-1944
English writer, philosopher and diplomat, 1603-1665, author of A Conference with the Lady about Choice of a Religion, Of Bodies and Of the Immortality of Man's Soul, and inventor of a powder of sympathy that could cure a wound without being in contact with it
French critic and novelist, 1920-2008, author of numerous works on Flaubert
poem from Carlos Muñoz de la Pua’s book La crencha engrasada
city in France
Parodi: “El dilettantismo sentimental de Raquel Camaña”: el título completo de la obra precisa su contenido: El Dilettantismo Sentimental: Estudios Literarios. Crónicas de tierra adentro. Notas de viaje. El libro llevó un prólogo de Alicia Moreau de Justo (1885-1986), la figura más destacada del feminismo argentino, directora del diario socialista La Vanguardia hasta 1960. Cf. supra §1.
genre of popular fiction
Denmark, Scandinavian country where Ivan Almeida and Cristina Parodi founded the Borges Center in 1995
king of Portugal, 1261-1325
Diocletian or Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus, Roman emperor, c. 245-316
Fishburn and Hughes: "Roman emperor from 284 until his abdication in 305. In 286 he reorganised the administration of the vast empire by sharing his power with Maximian, a colleague at arms, and in 293 with two assistants. The empire was divided into four parts, each controlled by one of its four Caesars who were united by religious bonds and later by ties of marriage. Diocletian was in charge of Thrace, Asia and Egypt. In 296 he led his army to quell the rebellion of Achilleus in Egypt, and was exceptionally ruthless in the accomplishment of this task." (61)
Diodorus Cronus of Iasos, Greek philosopher, fl. c. 300 B.C .
Diodorus Siculus of Agyrium, Greek historian, d. c. 20 B. C., author of a Biblioteca, a world history
Diophantus of Alexandria, Greek mathematician, c. 210-c. 290, author of Arithmetica and other works
Greek Cynical philosopher, c. 400-c. 325
Diogenes Laertius, Greek historian and philosopher, 3rd century A. D., author of a compendium of lives of the philosophers
character in Bustos Domecq stories, owner of a strange array of businesses
Greek mythological hero, king of the Bistonians
Dionysius the Areopagite, Athenian mentioned in Acts xvii.34 as converted by St. Paul, to whom a variety of works, including a work on Christian hierarchies, were ascribed in the Middle Ages
Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Διονύσιος Ἀλεξάνδρου Ἀλικαρνᾱσσεύς, Greek historian and teacher of rhetoric, c. 60-7 BC
Dionysus, Greek god of wine and ecstasy, associated with the Roman god Bacchus
Canadian quintuplets, born 1934
God, sometimes Creador, Padre, Verbo, Señor
Excerpt from Vidas paralelas by Plutarch.
Dioscuri, the sons of Zeus, the twins Castor and Pollux
poem by Miguel Andrés Camino
dam and artificial lake in the Sierras de Córdoba
dam and artificial lake in the Sierras de Córdoba, Argentina
Excerpt from Chuang Tzu by Herbert Allen Giles.
Borges story in El libro de arena
personification of discord
Dioscorides Pedanius, army physician at the time of Claudius and Nero
Longfellow poem based on the Old English poem "Ottar"
Jáuregui attack on culteranismo, 1624
Borges collection of essays, 1932; second and revised edition, 1955
Sternberg film, 1931
US commercial artist, animator and executive, 1901-1966, creator of Mickey Mouse and Donald Duck
Goya series of engravings
Parodi: “los Disparates de Goya.”: Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes (1746-1828), pintor y grabador aragonés, nacido en Fuendetodos, en la provincia de Zaragoza, fue autor entre muchas otras obras de una serie de grabados, realizados entre 1819 y 1823, titulados Los disparates, que fueron editados en 1864 con el título de Los proverbios. Se trata de escenas y personajes que por su afinidad con el mundo onírico también se conocen como Los sueños.
character in Alan Griffiths novel
Excerpt from Un barbare en Asie (1933) by Henri Michaux.
poem by Domingo Martinto, from Antología poética hispano-americana
Abulcasim el Hadrami anthology
Almotásim el Magrebí anthology
Kipling's book, 1917.
Pérez Zelaschi, short stories, 1981.
Dante poem, consisting of Inferno, Purgatorio and Paradiso, written c.1307-1321
Fishburn and Hughes: "An allegorical work by the Italian poet Dante Alighieri which aims at systematising medieval theology in a universal poem. Consisting of three parts known as canticas, it describes Dante's spiritual journey through Hell and Purgatory before he reaches the celestial sight of Beatrice, the woman he had loved since childhood, and the mystical revelation of God in Paradise. The system of punishment and retribution on which Dante's vision rests permits him to present a multiplicity of characters, both mythological and historical, placed in the three realms - Hell, Purgatory and Paradise - according to their deserts. Borges had a long-standing interest in Dante's poem and published a collection of essays on it (Ens. dantescos, Madrid 1982), claiming in the prologue that not a single word in the Divine Comedy is unjustified. See Ugolino, Beatriz Viterbo, Hell, Paradiso, Ruggieri." (61)
May Sinclair, 1904
Warburton theological treatise, 1737
poem by Manuel Rojas Silveira
river in Russia, Belarus and Ukraine
minor character in Borges-Bioy filmscript
co-worker with Borges in the public library in Almagro
Excerpt from Vera Christiana Religio (1771) by Swedenborg.
German novelist, 1878-1957
in Buenos Aires
Bustos Domecq, short story.
Lugones sonnet sequence in Los crepusculos del jardin
twelve English knights in Os Lusiadas, canto 6, who fight a tournament with twelve Portuguese knights
Fishburn and Hughes: A heresy embraced by some early Gnostics who thought of Christ's body as appearance and not reality. Three Versions of Judas
Sternberg film, 1928
Marlowe play, 1604
Fleming film, 1941
Stevenson novella; see The Strange Case of Doctor Jekyll and Mr. Hyde
Parodi: “las aflicciones del doctor Ox en búsqueda de la piedra filosofal”: obra supuestamente editada por Probeta. “Una fantasía del doctor Ox” es el título de un cuento del novelista francés Julio Verne (1828-1905) publicado en 1872 e incluido en el volumen de relatos El doctor Ox (1874). En el relato de Verne, el doctor Ox no busca la piedra filosofal, sino que es el responsable de los cambios sufridos por plantas, animales y seres humanos sometidos a un experimento de descomposición del agua en hidrógeno y oxígeno.
Pasternak novel, 1958
Irish classical scholar, 1893-1973,, author of Pagan and Christian in an Age of Anxiety and editor of Select Passages Illustrating Neo-platonism
ancient sanctuary of Zeus in Epirus, famous for its oracle
character in Lewis's Dodsworth
Alfred Döblin, German novelist, 1878-1957, author of Berlin Alexanderplatz
Rothe posthumous collection of theological writings, 1869
New York gangster, character in Borges story also mentioned in Asbury's Gangs of New York
Shand poem in Ferment
character in Bustos Domecq story
Parodi: joven anglosajona, actriz trashumante; mantuvo una relación con Ricardo de quien dice haber tenido un hijo; vive en Buenos Aires, en la esquina de Juncal y Esmeralda. Su verdadero nombre es Dolores; sus nombres artísticos, Dolly Sister y Miss Dollie Vavassour.
Lugones poem in El libro fiel
Swinburne poem in Poems and Ballads, 1866
town in province of Buenos Aires
character in Wells's A propos of Dolores
Domitian or Titus Flavius Domitianus, Roman emperor, 51-96
character in a sainete set in Palermo
Parodi: supuesta obra de Formento que habría sido publicada un año después del Antifonario de los panes y los peces de Anglada, que le sirvió de modelo.
Domingo de Guzman, Spanish monk and reformer, founder of Dominican order, 1170-1221
Argentine writer and teacher, 1904-1988
river in the western Russia
town in the province of Buenos Aires near Quilmes
Parodi: “de la órbita de Don Bosco, vale de Wilde”: la ciudad de Wilde, colindante con la de Don Bosco, está ubicada en el partido de Avellaneda. Wilde es estación ferroviaria de la línea General Roca en el ramal Constitución-La Plata. La ciudad de Don Bosco, ubicada al noreste del partido de Quilmes, es también estación del Ferrocarril Roca, en el mismo ramal que Wilde.
Byron epic satire, 1819-1824
Ponzio tango, 1898, also called "El panzudo"
cuarto virrey de la India
Zorrilla play, 1844
El ingenioso hidalgo don Quijote de la Mancha, Cervantes novel, 1605 and 1615
Menard novel, only fragments of which are extant
Güiraldes novel about gaucho life, 1926
Fishburn and Hughes: "A novel by the Argentine Ricardo Guïraldes, published in 1926 to exalt the gaucho way of life at a time when it was giving way to the needs of an industrial, export-oriented economy. Don Segundo Sombra is a nostalgic portrayal of a gaucho with the virtues of an idealised archetype: courage, honesty, self-control and a sense of responsibility. Though romanticised at times, Don Segundo remains the symbol of an age and a society removed from the corrupting influence of an urban environment. As Borges points out, the final lines of the story describing the hero riding into the distance symbolise the disappearance of the golden age of the pampas (Ev. Carr. 128). The novel narrates episodes in the education of Don Segundo's pupil, including many costumbrista elements concerning the life and customs of the troperos, the pampas herdsmen. This is why the book is said not to appeal to the Gutres, who themselves had first-hand experience of this kind of life." (62)
Parodi: Bioy (Borges 1024) apunta en mayo de 1964: “Concluimos el cuento de Loomis. No he podido atenuar una broma sobre Don Segundo, que apenará a Adelina.” [Adelina del Carril, 1889-1967, la esposa de Ricardo Güiraldes, autor de la novela mencionada]. Quizá Bioy se refiera a la síntesis de la obra de Güiraldes que sigue a la mención del título: “el articular Don Segundo Sombra no es haber expresado cada uno de los cuernos, testuces, patas, lomos, colas, rebenques, caronas, bastos, mandiles y cojinillos que integran, in extenso, el volumen”. Cf. también “Goliadkin” i §24.
town in the province of Buenos Aires northwest of the capital
Parodi: ciudad del noreste del Gran Buenos Aires, en el Partido de Tigre.
Almeida Garrett long poem, 1826
Argentine poet, friend of Borges
Rodolfo Wilcock’s short story.
Lombroso study of criminal psychology, 1893
Parodi: La donna delinquente, la prostituta e la donna normale: última obra del célebre médico y criminalista italiano Ezechia Marco Lombroso (1835−1909); conocido por su pseudónimo Cesare Lombroso, escrita en colaboración con su discípulo Guglielmo Ferrero, editada en 1893; en más de 600 páginas, con fotografías, dibujos, tablas, estadísticas y notas, Lombroso aplica al estudio de la mujer delincuente sus teorías positivistas sobre la criminalidad atávica, originada en anomalías físicas y mentales. La obra tuvo amplia repercusión y fue traducida a varios idiomas, pero quedó superada por las teorías que tomaban en consideración los factores sociales y económicos; no obstante, los estudios de Lombroso fueron una valiosa contribución al desarrollo de la antropología criminal. Creyente del espiritismo, Lombroso es también autor de Dopo la morte−cosa? (1909) (Después de la muerte−¿qué?), obra en que discute fenómenos paranormales.
English poet and divine, 1572-1631, author of The Progress of the Soul, Hymn to God the Father, the Pseudo-Martyr, Biathanatos, and numerous sermons, letters and poems
Italian literary scholar, 1901-1982, author of Dostojevski vivente, 1936
J. B. Priestley novel, 1937
Ellery Queen mystery novel, 1937
French artist, 1832-83, known for his illustrations of Cervantes and Dante
Gustav Frenssen sermons, 3 vols., 1899-1902
Kafka story about a giant mole, also known as Der Riesenmaulwurf
mattress factory in Belgrano
Sleeping Beauty, fairy tale
characters in Borges story
Argentine military man and political figure, 1787-1828
county in southwestern England
Bustos Domecq, 1946.
Lugones play in Lunario sentimental
US novelist, 1896-1970, author of the U.S.A. Trilogy, The Big Money, Manhattan Transfer and other works
Miguel E. Dolan book, 1988, the Borges preface was originally read at the book presentation in 1968
Borges story, sometimes attributed to Richard Burton, later part of "Abenjacan el Bojari, muerto en su laberinto"
Russian novelist, 1821-81, author of Crime and Punishment, The Possessed, The Double and other works
Donnini study, 1936
fortress in northeastern France, now the site of a huge ossuary from the Battle of Verdun
English writer, 1843-1926, author of Arabia Deserta
attacked by Wordsworth for having cut down a forest
Oscar Wilde's friend, son of the Marquess of Queensberry
pseudonym of George Douglas Brown, 1869-1902, author of The House with the Green Shutters
British Sinologist, 1838-1913, author of various articles on China for the Encyclopaedia Britannica
school where Aldington studied
English writer, 1867-1900
editor and commentator on Dante
Sternberg film, 1928
blue dragon which marks the east in Chinese cosmology
Evangeline Dora Edwards anthology, 1938
the Lung, one of the four magic animals
Van Dine novel, 1933
Argentine scholar of India, b. 1937, author of La palabra del Buda, 1971, and other works on Buddhism and yoga
character in Faulkner
Play by Ramón Gómez de la Serna, 1909.
Padraic Colum poems, 1922
G. Lenotre, 1905
English poet, 1563-1631, author of The Poly-Olbion, Ideas Mirrour and other works
Fishburn and Hughes: "An English poet, favoured at the court of Elizabeth I, reputedly a friend of Shakespeare and Ben Jonson, who fought against the Armada. Drayton's vast output covered religious, historical, satirical and topographical themes. His most famous work is the great topographical poem on England Polyolbion (Greek: 'having many blessings'), completed in 1622. Though Drayton had resolved to create a poem which would celebrate everything of topographical or antiquarian interest in Britain as a whole, he found the task a 'Herculean toil' and confined himself in the end to England. See Augural Canto." (62)
Aldington poem, 1930
Old English poem in the Vercelli Book
O. Henry, short story.
Edgar Allan Poe poem
Dunsany stories, 1910
Tres amigos, Gustav Frenssen, 1898
Sudermann dramatic poem about three heron's feathers, 1899
Döblin novel, 1915
US novelist, 1871-1945, author of An American Tragedy, Sister Carrie and other works
city in Germany
French soldier falsely accused of espionage whose trial revealed strong anti-Semitic feelings in France, 1859-1935
French writer, 1893-1945, friend of Victoria Ocampo, supporter of fascism
Fishburn and Hughes: "A French novelist, short-story writer, journalist and essayist, editor for a time of the Nouvelle Revue Francaise. He visited Argentina in 1933, when he met Borges and became one of the first critics to recognise his genius. On his return to France he declared: 'Borges vaut le voyage' ('Borges is worth the journey')." (62)
Lombard soldier who joins defenders of Ravenna, mentioned in GIbbon and Croce
Fishburn and Hughes: "A member of the Lombard army which descended into Italy in the sixth century, as recorded by Paul the Deacon in his Acts of the Lombards. Droctulft, captured and held prisoner in Ravenna, went over to the enemy in revenge for his leader's failure to come to his rescue." (62)
Crime novel written by John Rhode and Carter Dickson, 1939
Druids, priestly class of the ancient Celts
Fishburn and Hughes: "The title given by the ancient Celts of Gaul and Britain to the learned men who presided over religious ceremonies, judged legal disputes and recited the verses that form the bulk of Celtic literature.
Scottish poet (1585-1649).
Northumbrian whose vision of hell is recounted in Bede's history
English poet and playwright, 1631-1700, author of an Essay of Dramatick Poesie and countless other works
Englishman mentioned in poem by Borges and Marechal that pretends to be a translation of a Kipling poem
August Stramm book of poems, 1915
French poet and critic, c.1522-60, author of Antiquites de Rome, Regrets and other works
French writer and photographer, 1822-1894
French man of letters, 1610-88, author of a Glossarium ad scriptores mediae et infimae Latinitatis
Fishburn and Hughes: "A learned French philologist and historian, author of A Glossary of Medieval and Low Latinand A Glossary of Medieval and Low Greek. Well-documented from original texts, they focus on the historical aspects of the two languages and the relation between their classical and medieval forms." (63)
capital of the Republic of Ireland or Eire
Joyce collection of stories, 1914
character in Tennessee William's The Street Named Desire
“una mano de Duco por Gauweloose”. Duco is a lacquer used for painting. “Gauweloose” is a last name found in the Argentine phone book of 1950; a decorator whose address was on the famous Callao Street in Buenos Aires. (Mentioned in Bustos Domecq story.)
Damascio's ἀπορίαι καὶ λύσεις περὶ τῶν πρώτων ἀρχῶν
Amantine Lucile Aurore Dupin, Baroness Dudevant, better known as the novelist George Sand, 1804-1876
character in Shaw's Devil's Disciple
Conrad novella, 1908, with the subtitle The Point Of Honor: A Military Tale
Lugones phrase in Estudios helénicos, 1924
Parodi: una marca de automóviles lujosos construidos en los Estados Unidos; los de mayor prestigio en los años veinte y treinta.
British writer, 1894-1966, author of The Truth About Columbus, 1936, and of various books on language learning
British critic, 1884-1974, author of Quintessence of Ibsen and Quintessence of Bernard Shaw as well as of a book on Thomas Hardy
square in Geneva
late nineteenth-century Argentine dramatist, author of La dote and Príncipe que mató al dragón
French writer, 1861-1949, author of Les Lauriers sont coupés, an early example of stream-of-consciousness narrative
Argentine lawyer and man of letters, 1899-1981, author of Teoría de los valores y filosofía de la historia and works on Hegel and Buber, and translator of the Sefer Yetsirah
Casa de muñecas, Ibsen play, 1879
Dulcinea del Toboso, Don Quijote's lady, also known as Aldonza Lorenzo
Dumas père, French novelist and dramatist, 1802-70, author of Le Comte de Monte-Cristo, Les Trois Mousquetaires and other works
Dumas fils, French novelist and dramatist, 1824-95, author of La Dame aux Camélias and other works
nickname for a character in Bustos Domecq story, also known as el Navegante Solitario
Parodi: un personaje muy popular, Vito Dumas (1900-1965), navegante a vela en solitario y nadador argentino. En una pequeña embarcación, realizó el cruce del Atlántico desde Europa a Buenos Aires (1931), dio la vuelta al mundo (1942-1943) y en dos ocasiones (1945 y 1955) navegó el trayecto Buenos Aires-Nueva York-Buenos Aires. Relató sus viajes en El crucero de lo imprevisto; Solo, rumbo a la Cruz del Sur; Los cuarenta bramadores; La vuelta al mundo por la ruta imposible y Mis Viajes.
French literary critic and musicologist, 1879-1967, author of studies of Flaubert, Wagner, Mozart and other literary and musical topics
Scottish poet, c.1460-c.1520
character in Borges story
Scottish king, c. 1007-40, character in Shakespeare's Macbeth
Pope satirical poem, 1728-1743
port town in southern Ireland
Fishburn and Hughes: "An Irish coastal district in the county of Waterford, Munster, containing the remains of a castle built by King John. The castle, annexed to the Crown by Henry VIII, had a long history of aggression, culminating in its sack by Cromwell in 1649. In 1846, during the Great Famine, Dungarven was the scene of a riot against the export of grain." (63)
British aeronautical engineer and philosopher, 1875-1949, author of An Experiment with Time and Nothing Dies
Fishburn and Hughes: "An Irish popular philosopher, known for his theories of 'serial time', 'time regression' and precognition which influenced J.B. Priestley. Dunne claimed that the arguments of his best- known book, An Experiment with Time, were 'considerably easier to understand than are the rules of contract bridge' and of 'considerably more importance to mankind'. In the course of his own reasoning he arrived, much to his own surprise, at a formulation of the first scientific argument for human immortality. Borges has speculated at length on this book, with particular reference to chapters 21 and 22 in which 'a clear view of the nature of time regress' is illustrated by examples and by a series of diagrams. Though fascinated by Dunne's concept of 'hypothetic times' and by his postulation of a future which already exists, Borges cannot but be amused by the 'inextricable' quality of his diagrams and politely hints at the fallacies of his argument (.TL 19-20)." (62)
street in Paris where Auguste Dupin lives
poet, character in Borges story
Irish dramatist, poet and short-story writer, 1878-1957
Lovecraft story, 1929
George S. Terry book, 1938
amateur detective, character in Poe's Purloined Letter, Mystery of Marie Roget and Murders in the Rue Morgue
Fishburn and Hughes: "The detective hero of Poe's 'The Murder in the Rue Morgue', 'The Purloined Letter' and The Mystery of Marie Roget' who, by identifying with the mind of his opponent, manages to outwit him. Dupin is characterised as the analyst who, combining reason and intuition, glories in the solving of enigmas almost as a spiritual pursuit. Poe conceived of him as 'a poet who brings to commonplace reality the discriminating eye of the artist, but who weighs his evidence as a logician and is able to extrapolate from the raw materials of the real world the ideal solution'." (63)
Parodi: "el Caballero Augusto Dupin captura el inquietante simio que motivara las tragedias de la rue Morgue”: Dupin, el primero de los detectives sedentarios y aficionados, fue creado por Poe e hizo su aparición en “The Murders in the Rue Morgue”, 1841 (“Los crímenes de la calle Morgue”). En una reseña a un libro de Dickson Carr (Cautivos 347), dice Borges de este cuento, el primero del género policial: “Es muy sabido que Edgar Allan Poe inventó el cuento policial; es menos sabido que el primer cuento policial que escribió −“Los asesinatos de la rue Morgue”− ya formula un problema fundamental de ese género de ficciones: el del cadáver en la pieza cerrada, “en la que nadie entró y de la que nadie ha salido”. (Inútil agregar que la solución que propone no es la mejor: requiere esbirros muy inteligentes, un clavo fracturado en una ventana y un mono antropomorfo).”
artistic chef in Bustos Domecq story
Borges essay in Discusion
hospital in Buenos Aires
Parodi: el Hospital General de Agudos Carlos G. Durand, ubicado en el barrio de Caballito. Echando mano del sufijo italiano ‘-ino’ de valor diminutivo, Bustos llama ‘practiquinos’ a los médicos practicantes que atendieron a Garay.
Roland's sword in the Chanson de Roland
Albert Dürer, German painter and engraver, 1471-1528
Fishburn and Hughes: "A German painter, engraver and illustrator, whose treatment of the human figure combines the hallucinatory imagery of German late Gothic with the idealised vision of the Italian Renaissance. Dürer is here called a heretic because his representational painting can be said to break the Third Commandment: Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image or any likeness...' (Exodus 20:4). (63-64)
Herwarth Walden novel
race of pigs
French writer and physician, pseud. of André Nepveu, 1881-1959, author of a sequence of novels, Les Conquêtes du monde, and numerous other works
Fishburn and Hughes: "The pseudonym of André Nepveu, a French writer whose literary aim was 'the conquest of the world through images and visions'. Luc Durtain was a member of 'L'Abbaye', an artistic society founded in 1906, which sought to unite writers and painters in an atmosphere of intellectual comradeship, away from the constraints of society." (64)
Parodi: 1) Luc Durtain es el pseudónimo literario del médico y escritor francés Andre Nepveu (1881-1959), autor de novelas, poesías, ensayos, dramas y libros de viaje. Durtain frecuentó asiduamente la Abadía de Créteil, un falansterio cultural fundado en 1906 por un reducido grupo de escritores y artistas plásticos franceses que vivían retirados en esa comunidad utópica; el proyecto se desarrolló hasta 1908. La agrupación fue conocida como ‘Grupo de Créteil’, por la localidad en que estaba situada la abadía, en las afueras de París, en aquel tiempo una región campestre; también se los llamaba los ‘whitmanianos’, a causa de la influencia que sobre ellos ejerció la lírica de Walt Whitman, y asimismo, unanimistas, una corriente que inicialmente adhirió al simbolismo e intentó alcanzar un término medio entre el simbolismo y el surrealismo. Uno de los fundadores de esta corriente, Jules Romains (1885-1972), fue autor de dos poemas que suelen leerse como manifiestos del grupo: La vie unanime. Poème. 1904-1907 y Manuel de déification, 1910, en los que −como reacción frente al individualismo decimonónico− exalta la vida unánime, la conciencia colectiva y propone una literatura que represente el alma total de las masas, considerándolas con personalidad y vida propias. Nepveu visitó Buenos Aires en 1932, ocasión en que conoció a Borges; a su regreso a Francia escribió un libro de viajes, Vers la Ville Kilomètre 3, sobre su paso por varios países latinoamericanos. En “Más allá del bien y del mal” (cf. i §5 y vi §2) un cierto “Monsieur L. Durtain” es mencionado como supuesto patrón del Hotel des Eaux.
2) propietario del Hotel des Eaux
Italian actress, 1858-1924
Ellery Queen mystery, 1941
Pseudonym of Henri-Simon Schwabacher, French writer, 1875-1937, author of L’homme qui s’est retrouvé
the Venetian Dogo
name of star in Anglo-Saxon dialogue
Dworja Diament, 18998-1952, woman with whom Kafka lived in Berlin in 1923-24
Argentine artist and poet